著者
林 良一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本オリエント学会
雑誌
オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.25-50_8,202, 1973-10-20 (Released:2010-03-12)

The Greek word “rhyton” does not essentially mean “a drinking-vessel in the shape of a horn.” “ρυτον” is the name of a vessel which is derived from a verb “ρεω”. “ρεω” means “to flow out.” Actually, in the Aegean world, the rhyton had the spout at the lower part, which permitted a stream of wine to flow out of the vessel, and probably which was opened and shut by a finger.The so-called rhyta from the ancient Iran are classified into the follow ing five classes by Ghirshman.1. Vessels in the form of an animal.2. Vessels in the form of an animal head.3. Vessels in the shape of a horn with the form of an animal head.4. Goblets with the form of an animal-protome.5. Amphorae.But these contain vessels that do not have the spout, through which stream of liquid can flow out, athough the “rhyton” had originally such a function. Therefore, according to function, we get the following classification:1. Vessels which have an original function of the rhyton.a. Those with the spout at the upper part.… The zoomorphic rhyton: the spout at the animal mouth.… The amphora-rhyton: the spout at the handle.b. Those with the spout at the lower part.… The zoomorphic rhyton: the spout at the breast.… The rhyton with the protome of an animal: the spout at the breast.… The amphora-rhyton: a few spouts at the base.2. Vessels which do not have an original function of the rhyton.… The cup with an animal head.… The cup in the shape of a horn with an animal head.… The goblet with the protome of an animal.So the writer think that the vessel which does not have an original function of the rhyton should not be called a “rhyton” but a “cup in the shape of a horn” and should be distinguished from the rhyton.In the Parthian period long horn rhyta were prevalent, mostly with the protome of an animal or the bust of a woman, though there were also the Greek rhyta with the form of a bull head. In the Sassanian period the form of the old traditional rhyton of the form of an animal or an animal head revived and was used as the real rhyton. There were also amphora-rhyta, and those with the mixed forms of jar and an animal head.The vessels in the form of an animal head which do not have an original function of the rhyton were probably used for drinking with from their circular brim like regular vessels, and seem to have been used at banquets and ceremonies, as is seen in the drinking scene on the relief from Assyria.On the other hand, of vessels which have the function of the rhyton, those in the form of an animal were used for the libation of the religious ceremony. and the same may be true of the amphora-rhyton with the spout at the handle. As for the rhyton with the form of an animal head, especially of a bull head, we should note the Bakchos scene on the silver plate from north-west India (the British Museum) and the silver cup in the Sasanian times (the Cleaveland Museum), in which the hero raises the rhyton high up and drinks from the spout at the bull mouth. Because Dionysos was identified with the spirit of Haoma, these vessels were probably used at the ceremony related to such a faith. It is surmised that the rhyton in the form of a bull head from Deilaman was used for the libation in the rites of Drvaspa, because it has the head of Drvaspa, guardian deity of cattle.The amphora-rhyton is not a drinking-vessel, but may be a pouring-vessel. The amphora-rhyton found in the ancient tomb at Tchertmlik in southern Russia has a sieve at the neck with which to filter dregs of wine, and three spouts through which to pour clear wine into cups. The amphora-rhyton found at Mazandaran shows Anahita, or her servant under the arcade of a grape vine. The Aban Ya

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林良一(1973)「オリエントにおけるリュトンの形式と用法について」『オリエント』16(1): 25-50. https://t.co/vqjEYSmtLb リュトンは本来灌奠の儀式の道具でオリエントでも同じく儀式用だったが杯とし… https://t.co/RNOl5wUWWw

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