- 産業教育学研究 (ISSN:13405926)
- vol.27, no.1, pp.56-63, 1997-01-31 (Released:2017-07-18)
In accordance with the changes in the expectations for higher education for women, noticeable changes can be detected in the educational objective of junior colleges in recent years, from that of producing educated women to that of training women to enter work force. This change has evolved around various certificate programs offered mainly at junior colleges. Student can obtain certificates for teaching positions at kindergarten, primary and middle schools, as well as for librarians, dietitians, textile advisors, and secretaries. The certificate program has been included in the junior college education when the junior college education system was first established in the 1950s. At first, the emphasis of the program was to train students to become dietitians and kindergarten teachers, and the program was part of preparing students to become a homemaker. Due to the increase in the number of graduates who wish to apply for clerical positions, the certificate program for secretaries become popular among students in the 1970s. Junior colleges have recently started offering certificates for health care positions in order to cope with the current problems of the old aged society. The process of the development of the certificate program clearly indicate, how successfully the program has met the needs of the time, as well as the characteristics of the junior college education which places a special emphasis on promoting the principle of sexual division of labor. The certificate program poses various problems to he solved in the years to come. Such problems are: certificates are issued for predominantly female dominated jobs; the low percentage of graduates who make use of the certificate for employment, etc. Although a large number of students graduate with certificates in a variety of fields, the certificate program can't be said to have functioned properly as an effective means of vocational education in training young women to become economically independent. It will have to be restructed into a new type of career education so that it would successfully meet the challenges brought about by changes in young women's life styles.