- 東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
- vol.36, pp.465-473, 1996-12-20
Public Museums, born in modern times, contain two dilemmas. One dilemma is "Who owns a museum?" Generally, a museum forms its collection according to academic elites'value system, so only parts of the public go there. Lately many museums attempt to have various communitiesjoin in planning exhibition for democratization of culture and equality of cultural opportunity. But ironically this causes the crisis of museum identities.The other dilemma is "Is a museum a temple or a forum?" Museological changes transfer "a museum as a temple" into "a museum as a forum" , where visitors analyze the displey while going through the hall. But the general public tend to consider a museum as a temple, where they celebrate the display without critical perspectives. The same dilemmas were seen in the U.S.National Air and Space Museum (NASM) . Froml993 to 1995, the planned Enola=Gay exhibition, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the end of the World War II , provoked rage around the country. "Which owns NASM, academic elites or retired soldiers?" "What is the goal of NASM, education or celebration?" The Enola=Gay controversy throws fundamental problems to American museum world.