著者
鈴木 翔 須藤 康介 荒川 智美 寺田 悠希 澁谷 功太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.103-116, 2012-03-10

The purpose of our study is to make clear the significance of a boyfriend or girlfriend for junior high school students. For this purpose, we firstly investigated the determining factors of having a boyfriend/girlfriend, and then clarified the effects of the fact that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend on their self-consciousness. As a result of our analyses, we got following two findings. First, there are various factors which determine whether junior high school students have a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, and the factors differ according to each student's gender. Furthermore, the levels of academic accomplishment of the school also make a difference. Second, when we analyze the effects of that fact on their self-consciousness, it is necessary to consider not only the very thing that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, but also if she or he is likely to have a boyfriend/girlfriend. Our analysis suggests that a success in love for girls in junior high has a more complex meaning compared with that for boys.
著者
橋本 鉱市 齋藤 崇德 加藤 靖子 千田 恭平
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.61-86, 2013-03-10

The graduate schools in Japan have been expanding since 1990's. In this paper, we focused on the doctoral courses of humanities & social sciences which have been limited in research and analysis as compared with natural sciences and analyzed the employment qualifications in the academic market. To put it concretely, we conducted quantitative analysis of application qualifications by using the data of JREC-IN (Japan Research Career Information Network). Through this analysis, we 1) analyzed the employment situation of doctoral students in humanities & social sciences, 2) investigated the qualifications and employability expected in the academic market, and 3) extracted the prospective problems of the doctoral education in humanities & social sciences.
著者
橋本 鉱市 齋藤 崇德 加藤 靖子 千田 恭平
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.61-86, 2012

The graduate schools in Japan have been expanding since 1990's. In this paper, we focused on the doctoral courses of humanities & social sciences which have been limited in research and analysis as compared with natural sciences and analyzed the employment qualifications in the academic market. To put it concretely, we conducted quantitative analysis of application qualifications by using the data of JREC-IN (Japan Research Career Information Network). Through this analysis, we 1) analyzed the employment situation of doctoral students in humanities & social sciences, 2) investigated the qualifications and employability expected in the academic market, and 3) extracted the prospective problems of the doctoral education in humanities & social sciences.
著者
児玉 英靖 張 或〓 相澤 真一 居郷 至伸 大滝 世津子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, pp.175-195, 2007-03-10

This paper examines the Japanese concept of gemba from the angle of sociology of knowledge. The concept of gemba has been widely used in Japanese schools, factories and offices, which can be literally translated to "the real scene" in English. However, the term gemba often suggests a sense of distinction between "we as powerless workers who know better about the situation" and "they as management or outsiders who do not know what really happens in the scene." Without referring to the social actors who use this concept under specified situation, it is very difficult to pinpoint down exactly what kinds of matter belongs to in a particular gemba. Delineating how this concept was actually used in different social settings, like high school, kindergarten and convenience stores, it suggests that, on the one hand, the concept's intension and the contents it connotes are often ambiguous, on the other hand, its extension often denotes a well-defined and clear boundary of what should be included within a particular gemba. The article thus discusses how the use of this concept may actually relate to group dynamics and thus it may reveal the power structure in contemporary Japanese society.
著者
鈴木 翔 須藤 康介 荒川 智美 寺田 悠希 澁谷 功太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.103-116, 2012-03-10 (Released:2012-04-05)

The purpose of our study is to make clear the significance of a boyfriend or girlfriend for junior high school students. For this purpose, we firstly investigated the determining factors of having a boyfriend/girlfriend, and then clarified the effects of the fact that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend on their self-consciousness. As a result of our analyses, we got following two findings. First, there are various factors which determine whether junior high school students have a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, and the factors differ according to each student's gender. Furthermore, the levels of academic accomplishment of the school also make a difference. Second, when we analyze the effects of that fact on their self-consciousness, it is necessary to consider not only the very thing that one has a boyfriend/girlfriend or not, but also if she or he is likely to have a boyfriend/girlfriend. Our analysis suggests that a success in love for girls in junior high has a more complex meaning compared with that for boys.
著者
野崎 有以
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, pp.243-252, 2011-03-10

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts of "Seikatsu-Kagaku" under the world war II and home economics after the war. The concepts of "Seikatsu-Kagaku" and home economics are similar. "Seikatsu-Kagaku" was encouraged under the war, because it was considered to be useful for practicing the rational life. However, home economics was trivialized after the war. The concept of "Seikatsu-Kagaku" was dealt with by several scholars. This paper takes up three scholars who dealt with "Seikatsu-Kagaku". On considering the tendency of home economics in post war Japan, home economics of elementary and secondary education are especially focused on, because they had some problems more conspicuous than that of higher education. Although it was out of step with the aims of its establishment, home economics of secondary education became the required subject for only girls. This research conciders the reason why home economics in post war Japan was trivialized.
著者
喜始 照宣
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.137-146, 2013-03-10

The aim of this paper is to examine how the university experience of geneki is different from the experience of ronin, based on interviews with art university students in Japan, and to discuss the relationship between art university students and yobiko (prep schools). The major findings can be summarized as follows: (1) most students think art university is a world away from yobiko, but cultural resources acquired from yobiko are necessary to pass the university entrance exam and useful for their production of artworks in university; (2) the education provided by yobiko functions as a cultural “buffer” for university experience and also provides a common language for artmakers; and (3) some geneki students report feeling a “geneki complex”, but they cope with this by pursuing their artistic expression.
著者
柳井 郁子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.107-115, 2002-02-25

This paper investigates a movement to improve people's daily life in a company and how the company tried to control labor's family. In Japan after the World War II family lost an original function of character building, and the family which was interested in scholastic ability and going on to the next stage of education increased. To make clear the change of the family, this paper analyzes the family of labor in the company in 1950s'-1960s'when the number of them increased. In the movement the company guided labor's family in family planning and life planning, and managed labor's family and wife. The model of the family was based on sexual division of labor, and the labor's wife was required to contribute to the company and society by reproduction of the work force.
著者
喜始 照宣
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, pp.79-90, 2016-03-31

The aim of this paper is to examine what kind of students in art universities have experienced yobiko (prep schools) life and how they evaluate the experiences, using quantitative data obtained from students in four art universities in Japan. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) About 80% of the respondents have attended classes at yobiko before entering university; (2) experiencing yobiko life is influenced by factors such as social class, place of origin and type of high school; (3) most of the students who have regularly attended classes at yobiko think that they had positive experiences there.
著者
西島 央
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.57-76, 2004-03-10

In Japan, what sort of people attend classical music concerts? It has been said that the classical music is an orthodox current of culture from the West, which was set up alongside the establishment of the modern educational system in Japan. Recently, however, the number of classes of music and other arts related subjects has been reduced as a result of the new national curriculum. In addition, the development of the Internet has provided a dramatic increase in terms of alternative access points to music. These are resulting in a dramatic change of music culture. Under these conditions, is it probable to think that attitudes towards classical music concerts might be in a process of change? The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the current conditions in relation to classical music concerts attendance from a sociological perspective. Methodologically, the paper draws upon evidence garnered from a questionnaire survey conducted at classical music concerts in Tokyo, Niigata and Kagoshima, between April and August 2002. To date, there have been few studies to investigate the sociological profile and associated behaviour related to classical music concert attendees, except the index of a stratum research. In this research, I will make use of sociological description of attendance, exploring the issue of regional difference. Subsequently I will analyze attendee's first experiences vis-a-vis the concert. Finally I will specify the features of attendance in relation to those classified as ""Jouren"" i. e. regular goers and those labeled ""Ichigen"" i. e first-timers. I will analyse the differences between them in light of a number of sociological indicators and their musical experiences during their formal education. As a kind of pilot study, I will propose a research framework that could provide a signpost for future research exploration.
著者
堤 孝晃
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, pp.147-156, 2013-03-10

What should we teach in education? This question has been one of the central concerns in places of education and social scientific study in education. The “relevance” can be utilized as a key concept when one tries to reveal the answer to that question. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the assumptions about the “relevance,” not in a normative but in an empirical way. For this purpose, I examine the relation between the vocational education and the political attitudes, which have not been examined in prior studies, through an analysis of the data from a questionnaire survey to high school students in vocational courses and general courses in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. / The analysis shows the following three points. First, compared with the general school students, more students in the vocational courses tend to have orientation toward political independence. Second, comparing subjects in vocational courses, studying the special subject hard doesn't reflect students ’ orientation toward political independence, but it could mediate studying the social studies hard and their orientation toward political independence. Finally, the relation between the vocational education and the students’ orientation toward occupational independence is not found. / These findings are contrary to our conventional expectations. In conclusion, we should reconsider thoroughly our common assumptions about the “relevance”.
著者
中澤 篤史 西島 央 矢野 博之 熊谷 信司
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, pp.317-337, 2009-03-10

In secondary school of Japan under the current national curriculum (course of study), the club activities had not been corroborated institutionally despite that they were very important aspect of schoollife alike lesson activities. But on the coming national curriculum, it has described that club activities should be related with school curriculum properly, especially paying attention to circumstances or situations of each school. Nevertheless it had not got such information and those data. In this paper we'll endeavour to illuminate the circumstances about adviser-teacher of club activities, the relations of teaching on club activities to guidance, also to the other school affairs from the questionnaire survey to teachers in the Tokyo metropolitan area and seven prefectures, Iwate, Niigata, Shizuoka, Nara, Kagawa, Yamaguchi, and Kagoshima./ We will deal with the following issues in this paper. 1) School survey; the relations between the size of schools and club activities, the obligation on participation in club activities, assignment of adviser-teachers, school aims concerning club activities. 2) Teachers survey; circumstances of club activities, the management system of club activities and coaches, teachers'experiences about club activities, management and coaching, the other school affairs, teachers'opinions concerning coaching and teaching.
著者
黒田 友紀 杉山 二季 望月 一枝 玉城 久美子 船山 万里子 浅井 幸子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, pp.317-325, 2010-03-10

The purpose of this paper is to examine how gender imbalance is constructed and what gender issues occur in teacher allocation at elementary schools. We conducted an interview survey to 10 male teachers in metropolitan areas to examine the actual conditions of male teacher allocation in elementary schools and analyze how gender imbalance occurs. Female teachers are prone to be allocated to lower grades and male teachers aren't much even if they want to. This imbalance results from gender biased consideration for female teachers, who carry out responsibility for care of their family and young children. Work of upper grades is so tough and hard that female teachers tend to avoid taking charge of upper grades. And then male teachers are often taken their workplaces in upper grades and they do busy and hard work. Male teachers are also expected masculine and controlling role to student behavior. Additionally work of upper grades is in a spotlight or central parts at schools, on the other hands, work of lower grades is regarded as shadow work. This gender imbalance works as sexual discrimination in elementary schools. Some experiences of male teachers suggest possibilities to change gender imbalance in teacher allocation. Changing balance of disproportionate work between lower grades and upper grades and sharing hard work will improve institution and structure in schools.
著者
三宅 なほみ 齊藤 萌木 飯窪 真也 利根川 太郎
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.441-458, 2012-03-10

The Consortium for Renovating Education for the Future, founded at the University of Tokyo in 2009, has been striving to help teachers develop a networked community for creating authentically learner-centered classrooms. The classes are designed on a cognitive framework where the constructively interactive components during classroom student discussions provide individual students with a chance to express and reflect upon their own ideas as well as others, for integrating and constructively deepening them. This community currently involves more than 100 teachers coming from sixty-nine schools, ranging from elementary to high-schools. The paper reports its success for helping teachers to create sub-communities around their locations as well as their subject areas, so that they could collaboratively share the prime plans for similar classes and reflect upon their outcomes. Discussions on future plans conclude the paper.
著者
西島 央
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, pp.57-76, 2004-03-10

In Japan, what sort of people attend classical music concerts? It has been said that the classical music is an orthodox current of culture from the West, which was set up alongside the establishment of the modern educational system in Japan. Recently, however, the number of classes of music and other arts related subjects has been reduced as a result of the new national curriculum. In addition, the development of the Internet has provided a dramatic increase in terms of alternative access points to music. These are resulting in a dramatic change of music culture. Under these conditions, is it probable to think that attitudes towards classical music concerts might be in a process of change? The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the current conditions in relation to classical music concerts attendance from a sociological perspective. Methodologically, the paper draws upon evidence garnered from a questionnaire survey conducted at classical music concerts in Tokyo, Niigata and Kagoshima, between April and August 2002. To date, there have been few studies to investigate the sociological profile and associated behaviour related to classical music concert attendees, except the index of a stratum research. In this research, I will make use of sociological description of attendance, exploring the issue of regional difference. Subsequently I will analyze attendee's first experiences vis-a-vis the concert. Finally I will specify the features of attendance in relation to those classified as "Jouren" i. e. regular goers and those labeled "Ichigen" i. e first-timers. I will analyse the differences between them in light of a number of sociological indicators and their musical experiences during their formal education. As a kind of pilot study, I will propose a research framework that could provide a signpost for future research exploration.
著者
大滝 世津子
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, pp.131-144, 2007-03-10

Focusing on two classes of as well as their teachers of three-year-old children as well as their teachers in a kindergarten, this research, which was held between April to October 2005, investigates how gender consciousness among children are related to their social relationships with teachers are peer groups. The research finds out that a majority of the children did not have any gender identity before entering the kindergarten, and there is no clear evidence to show that sex or date of birth are related to the time when children identity their gender. However, before entering the summer vacation at July, most of the children already have clear gender consciousness. The research then shows that children will recognize their gender identity earlier if they prefer playing within a group and communicating more with teachers. On the contrary, for those children who prefer to play alone or to keep a distance from teachers, they will identity their gender later. In addition, for those children who always stick to teacher but prefer to play alone, they still have earlier gender consciousness.
著者
石丸 径一郎
出版者
東京大学
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.41, pp.283-290, 2002-02-25
被引用文献数
1

Studies on identity and adjustment of minority group members exist independently in each minority group. The author tries to integrate studies on various minority groups in the viewpoint of identity development. An integrated model of minority group identity development is proposed on the basis of studies from three fields (ethnic minority, sexual minority, visual impairment). From this integrated viewpoint, many minority group members can benefit from preceding studies of other fields.
著者
辻 直人
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, pp.27-35, 2001-03-15

Sending students abroad (ryugakusei) has been one of the important policy for higher education system in modern Japan. They were intended to be a professor after coming back to Japan. Especially, when the expansion of higher education system began in 1900's, more professors were required. So the number of studensts sent abroad increased in 1900's. But meanwhile, another opinion occurred : that is demanding the immediate reform or abolition of the student-sending system because of their bad reputation. These arguments influenced some part of the system. Monbusho, the ministry of education reinforced the supervision over the students in foreign countries, and tried to select more qualified person worthy for sending abroad by public subscription. We can also see some changes in the selection from the Imperial University of Tokyo, but it didn't alter as demanded.
著者
白山 映子
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.363-375, 2012-03-10

During the Meiji Restoration, Japan adopted Western culture, ideas, education and technology, and even introduced new animal breeds from the West, including new varieties of rabbits. Cross-breeding with domestic varieties produced rabbits with unusual coloring, and around 1873 these became the target of speculative trading. This phenomenon is known as the "Rabbit Mania". In the same period, the genre Kaika-mono (lowbrow fiction) was popular among the ordinary people. Stories in this genre include "Seiyou Douchuu Hizakurige" (1870), "Aguranabe" (1871), "Bummei Kaika" (1873), "Kaika Mondou" (1874) and "Bummei Inaka Mondou" (1878). This paper discusses two stories belonging to this genre that deal with the "Rabbit Mania" : "Tori Gekka Mondou" and "Usagi no Mondou". The style of these stories is light and comical, and the former has a rather risqué flavor. The author explores the "Rabbit Mania" through an examination of the dialogue in these stories, and reports about the phenomenon in both English and Japanese newspapers. The paper also refers to related nishikie (colored woodblock print) parodies.
著者
渡邉 茉奈美
出版者
東京大学大学院教育学研究科
雑誌
東京大学大学院教育学研究科紀要 (ISSN:13421050)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, pp.191-202, 2012-03-10

We have to consider the effective program to prevent our children from child maltreatment because child maltreatment is increasing. What is the most effective for every parent? I think every parent has more or less parental anxiety. So the preventing program focusing on it can be effective for every parent. In this paper, I reviewed the studies of parental anxiety. Then I found the parental anxiety affects the parenting misbehavior and that it is changing with time. For example, there may be anxiety about abusing as everyone knows "child maltreatment" by the media. That is why I suggest that we should hear the real parents'voice to know what kind of anxiety they have. If we can know it, we are making the program of primary prevention of child maltreatment that focuses on it.