- 北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
- vol.6, pp.141-151, 2004-01
1) Lord Teika Fujiwara was the most famous poet during the last Heian and early Kamakura period. He was poor and low in position. But the ex-emperor Gotobain judged Teika's talent and appointed him to an official of Waka (poem) Bureau since when Teika could make a brilliant figure in the circle of court poetry. Their honeymoon, however, could not continue so long. Several times they fell out owing to the opposition of appraisal of poem. At last Teika was convicted to the house arrest on the charge of ill-omened poem making. 2) In 1221 Gotobain as the top leader of aristocracy decided to overthrow the Kamakura Shogunate and rose in coup d'Etat. But, he could gather the military forces merely 25 thousands of persons, and was defeated by the 195000 strong troop of Shogunate. Gotoba was caught and exiled to Oki Island, one of the solitary island far out on the Nippon-Kai (Sea of Japan). His third Imperial Prince ex-emperor Juntoku was exiled to Sado-Island. This war is called 'the revolt of Jokyu.' 3) By contrast with Gotobain's tragic destiny, Teika succeeded in life under the patronage of new Emperor Gohorikawa who had acceded to the throne as the puppet of Kamakura Shogunate. Teika and his sun Tameie advanced to the high position. Teika was crowned with glory to edit by himself the new anthology collected by Imperial Command. Teika would not send the only letter of sympathy and the only present of consolation to Gotobain who was obliged to send a miserable life under despair and loneliness. 4) It was natural that Gotobain and his close associates criticized Teika's attitude unfavorably as the shameless and ungrateful one. When Gotobain edited a new poetical composition matches named "Jidai-Fudo-Utaawase, " he compiled Fujiwara letaka, who showed great sincerity to him, with the excellent female poet, Mise Onono-Komachi. On the contrary, Gotobain compiled Teika, who went back on him, with the second classed poet, Prince Motoyoshi. So many historian have looked on as if Gotobain and Teika, these two prominent poets ended their life excluding each other. 5) But, this view is not correct. Gotobain in his later years edited a very extraordinary poetical composition matches named "Poetical composition matches of two Lord Teika-Ietaka, " in which Teika was written on the left side and Ietaka on the right side. Most remarkable point is the special character of Teika's poems. Among 50 poems, the inhalt of the first half about 30 poems are exclamation to the uncertain change of beautiful nature and flowering plant. And the inhalt of the second half about 20 poems are the sympathy to the tragic destiny of lifelong separated person, and the bitter sorrow. We feel as if Teika appeal to Gotobain "Every night I am crying and fall in the blues." This poetical composition matches is the message of Gotobain to Teika that "I understand your genuine feelings." 6) By what reasons Gotobain his attitude to Teika made a complete change by one hundred and eighty degrees? The reason is nothing else than the appearance of Teika's "Hyakunin-isshu (One Hundred Poems from One Hundred poets, 1235)." Upper mentioned Gotobain's Utaawase was edited during 4 years from July of 2nd year of Katei  to the death year of Gotobain . Teika's Hyakunin-isshu was edited at May of the 2nd year of Bunryaku . Hyakunin-isshu is the most famous Anthology of excellent poems from one hundred poets in Man'yo, Heian and Kamakura periods. But, behind it, a wonderful elaborate device was hidden, which made a great impression on Gotobain. 7) Owing my decoding, the mystery of Hyakunin-isshu is as follows: (1) Hyakunin-isshu is a Uta-Orimono (Waka-Textile woven with words), which is composed of ten Wakas both in length and in width, and were woven each other by the warp and woof of connecting words. Each Waka has the word connection with four neighboring Wakas of right and left side and upper and lower side. Provided that, the corner Waka has two connection and edge Waka except corner has three connection. In the history of Japanese Waka, this word connection developed by way of four steps. Firstly, connection of two Wakas (Somonka of Man'yo), secondly, connection of several thousand Wakas in on horizontal line (Chokusen Waka Shu), thirdly, connection of double decker (Teika: Monogatari 200 Ban-Uta Awase), fourthly, connection of multistoreyed building type (Hyakunin-isshu). (2) If the connection words of 7 lines of right side of the Waka-Textile convert into picture, a beautiful landscape rise to the surface. Mountains rise in the surrounding part. Waterfall comes down in the central part. Big river flows in the lower part. Cherry blossoms, chrysanthemum, maple at the foot of mountain. Ditch reed on the shore of river. Various flowering plant in the field. Palace, temple, shrine, etc. This landscape corresponds to the reality of Minase country, in which the imperial villa of Gotobain was built. (3) At the four corner of Waka-Textile, there are four important persons. In Buddhism thought, the world (Mandala) is guarded by four Devos (Shitenno), who stand at the four corners of Mandala. Since this thought had been imported, Japanese intelligentia considered seriously the four corners of the thing. Well, Teika's Waka are put in the right-lower corner, in the position of Jikoku-ten. For one who comes not I yearn ; as at Matsuho, In the evening calm. The salt-weeds are burnt aglow. So parch'd am I for desire (translation by Haruo Miyata) "Matsuho" is the name of northern shore of Awaji Island. This Teika's poem expresses a pationately yearning mind for someone who comes not. Who is the someone no return? Because Teika's Waka is put in the position of Jikoku-Ten, the someone are put in the other three positions of four Devos. In the left lower corner, in the position of Zochoten-Gotobain. In the right upper corner, in the position of Tamonten-Juntokuin. These two persons are the ex-emperors, who were exiled in the prison islands and could not return to metropolis d. i. Kyoto. Furthermore, in the left upper corner, in the position of Komokuten-Shokushi Naishinno (Naishinno means the daughter of Tenno). Princess Shokushi was an excellent feminine poet and was the object of Teika's secret platonic love. She had died far previously before Hyakunin-isshu was edited. So, she could not return to this world again. 8) Hyakunin-isshu was sent to Gotobain. Perhaps the sender was not Teika, but Ietaka who was on friendly terms with Gotobain. Ietaka sent this Anthology in the form of Waka-Textile, taxing his ingenuity, under the strict censorship by the local agencies of Kamakura Shogunate. Successfully Gotobain could decode the secret of Hyakunin-isshu. Being suffered a great impression, he changed his valuation on Teika, and understood Teika's true feeling.