著者
林 直道
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.141-151, 2004-01

1) Lord Teika Fujiwara was the most famous poet during the last Heian and early Kamakura period. He was poor and low in position. But the ex-emperor Gotobain judged Teika's talent and appointed him to an official of Waka (poem) Bureau since when Teika could make a brilliant figure in the circle of court poetry. Their honeymoon, however, could not continue so long. Several times they fell out owing to the opposition of appraisal of poem. At last Teika was convicted to the house arrest on the charge of ill-omened poem making. 2) In 1221 Gotobain as the top leader of aristocracy decided to overthrow the Kamakura Shogunate and rose in coup d'Etat. But, he could gather the military forces merely 25 thousands of persons, and was defeated by the 195000 strong troop of Shogunate. Gotoba was caught and exiled to Oki Island, one of the solitary island far out on the Nippon-Kai (Sea of Japan). His third Imperial Prince ex-emperor Juntoku was exiled to Sado-Island. This war is called 'the revolt of Jokyu.' 3) By contrast with Gotobain's tragic destiny, Teika succeeded in life under the patronage of new Emperor Gohorikawa who had acceded to the throne as the puppet of Kamakura Shogunate. Teika and his sun Tameie advanced to the high position. Teika was crowned with glory to edit by himself the new anthology collected by Imperial Command. Teika would not send the only letter of sympathy and the only present of consolation to Gotobain who was obliged to send a miserable life under despair and loneliness. 4) It was natural that Gotobain and his close associates criticized Teika's attitude unfavorably as the shameless and ungrateful one. When Gotobain edited a new poetical composition matches named "Jidai-Fudo-Utaawase, " he compiled Fujiwara letaka, who showed great sincerity to him, with the excellent female poet, Mise Onono-Komachi. On the contrary, Gotobain compiled Teika, who went back on him, with the second classed poet, Prince Motoyoshi. So many historian have looked on as if Gotobain and Teika, these two prominent poets ended their life excluding each other. 5) But, this view is not correct. Gotobain in his later years edited a very extraordinary poetical composition matches named "Poetical composition matches of two Lord Teika-Ietaka, " in which Teika was written on the left side and Ietaka on the right side. Most remarkable point is the special character of Teika's poems. Among 50 poems, the inhalt of the first half about 30 poems are exclamation to the uncertain change of beautiful nature and flowering plant. And the inhalt of the second half about 20 poems are the sympathy to the tragic destiny of lifelong separated person, and the bitter sorrow. We feel as if Teika appeal to Gotobain "Every night I am crying and fall in the blues." This poetical composition matches is the message of Gotobain to Teika that "I understand your genuine feelings." 6) By what reasons Gotobain his attitude to Teika made a complete change by one hundred and eighty degrees? The reason is nothing else than the appearance of Teika's "Hyakunin-isshu (One Hundred Poems from One Hundred poets, 1235)." Upper mentioned Gotobain's Utaawase was edited during 4 years from July of 2nd year of Katei [1236] to the death year of Gotobain [1239]. Teika's Hyakunin-isshu was edited at May of the 2nd year of Bunryaku [1235]. Hyakunin-isshu is the most famous Anthology of excellent poems from one hundred poets in Man'yo, Heian and Kamakura periods. But, behind it, a wonderful elaborate device was hidden, which made a great impression on Gotobain. 7) Owing my decoding, the mystery of Hyakunin-isshu is as follows: (1) Hyakunin-isshu is a Uta-Orimono (Waka-Textile woven with words), which is composed of ten Wakas both in length and in width, and were woven each other by the warp and woof of connecting words. Each Waka has the word connection with four neighboring Wakas of right and left side and upper and lower side. Provided that, the corner Waka has two connection and edge Waka except corner has three connection. In the history of Japanese Waka, this word connection developed by way of four steps. Firstly, connection of two Wakas (Somonka of Man'yo), secondly, connection of several thousand Wakas in on horizontal line (Chokusen Waka Shu), thirdly, connection of double decker (Teika: Monogatari 200 Ban-Uta Awase), fourthly, connection of multistoreyed building type (Hyakunin-isshu). (2) If the connection words of 7 lines of right side of the Waka-Textile convert into picture, a beautiful landscape rise to the surface. Mountains rise in the surrounding part. Waterfall comes down in the central part. Big river flows in the lower part. Cherry blossoms, chrysanthemum, maple at the foot of mountain. Ditch reed on the shore of river. Various flowering plant in the field. Palace, temple, shrine, etc. This landscape corresponds to the reality of Minase country, in which the imperial villa of Gotobain was built. (3) At the four corner of Waka-Textile, there are four important persons. In Buddhism thought, the world (Mandala) is guarded by four Devos (Shitenno), who stand at the four corners of Mandala. Since this thought had been imported, Japanese intelligentia considered seriously the four corners of the thing. Well, Teika's Waka are put in the right-lower corner, in the position of Jikoku-ten. For one who comes not I yearn ; as at Matsuho, In the evening calm. The salt-weeds are burnt aglow. So parch'd am I for desire (translation by Haruo Miyata) "Matsuho" is the name of northern shore of Awaji Island. This Teika's poem expresses a pationately yearning mind for someone who comes not. Who is the someone no return? Because Teika's Waka is put in the position of Jikoku-Ten, the someone are put in the other three positions of four Devos. In the left lower corner, in the position of Zochoten-Gotobain. In the right upper corner, in the position of Tamonten-Juntokuin. These two persons are the ex-emperors, who were exiled in the prison islands and could not return to metropolis d. i. Kyoto. Furthermore, in the left upper corner, in the position of Komokuten-Shokushi Naishinno (Naishinno means the daughter of Tenno). Princess Shokushi was an excellent feminine poet and was the object of Teika's secret platonic love. She had died far previously before Hyakunin-isshu was edited. So, she could not return to this world again. 8) Hyakunin-isshu was sent to Gotobain. Perhaps the sender was not Teika, but Ietaka who was on friendly terms with Gotobain. Ietaka sent this Anthology in the form of Waka-Textile, taxing his ingenuity, under the strict censorship by the local agencies of Kamakura Shogunate. Successfully Gotobain could decode the secret of Hyakunin-isshu. Being suffered a great impression, he changed his valuation on Teika, and understood Teika's true feeling.
著者
陳 仲奇
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.149-170, 2001-03-31

The aim of this paper is to explain the complex mental structure of Shenxian theory (神仙節) in Taoism (道教) using spiritual historical analysis. Originally the primitive cult of immortality was seen in inland beliefs such as the Kunlun myth(崑崙神話). However, after f the Warring States Period in the middle of 4th century B. C., Haixian belief(海仙信仰) (e.g. the Legend of Penglai 蓬莱伝説) originated from countries in coastal areas, such as Qi (斉) and Chu(楚), and those beliefs became assimilated. Later, the Shenxian theory was supported by alchemy which was the high technology at that time and absorbed ancient Chinese folk beliefs, the Taoist school (道家) metaphysical views of nature alchemists' delusion of grandeur in the universe, tradition of techniques to attain Yangshenshu (養生術) since the Qin'Han(秦漢) dynasties, and outcomes of folk medicine. Then the eminent scholar GeHong (葛洪) in Eastern Jin(東晋) systematized and established the Shenxian theory. The Shenxian theory established by GeHong has theoretical and rationalistic tendencies. Especially the empirical and realistic thonght (that Shenxian is not innate but attained through trainings) and mundane spirit (seen in Dixian theory (地仙説) that Shenxian does not ascend heaven but stayed in this world for a long time) reflect the rationalistic and utilitarian values of traditional Chinese culture. From this perspective cultural characteristics of Taoism can be understood. The Shenxian belief(神仙信仰) for immortals was just a fantasy, but in that approach we see the Chinese active attitude toward nature. The theoretical foundation of Shenxian theory formed by GeHong was influenced by this anti-fatalistic natural philosophy. Compared with the Confucian (儒家) tradition, which is characterized by neglect of technology, awe of Heaven's will, respect for the teachings of ancestors and primary emphasis on texts the Shenxian theory in Taoism is unique.
著者
豊田 有恒
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.97-111, 2001-03

In the beginning of the 3rd century, the North Eastern Region of Asia was not yet known to China. The mainland of China was devided into three different dynasties, "Wei (魏), " "Wu (呉), " and "Shu (蜀), " which kept fighting each other for nearly half a century. Famous Chinese historian Chen Shou (陳寿) described "Three Dynasty Chronicles (三国志)" in which he introduced to Chinese court not only silkroad countries but also un-known Eastern races and countries. This document was the first description on those predecessors of NEAR, North East Asia Region.
著者
諏訪 淳一郎
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
no.5, pp.133-146, 2003-03

Various researches in popular music studies and related areas have been discussing the correlation between pop music and violent behaviors. While this study finds ground in the both sides of arguments - music as the root of violent behavior of teenagers and music having nothing to do with violence - it focuses on where and how violent behavior and music meet to form a nexus of cultural context. A recent study on urban Papua New Guinea by Karl Neuenfeldt has made an account of "mayhem" took place in during a pop concert at Port Moresby Show in order to exemplify contemporary cultural complex of the country. This study takes advantage of the Neuenfeldt article to posit an argument on violence and music by taking three separate incidents of violence at outdoor music concerts from the Madang area, where the author conducted a field research between 1997 and 1998. Both in Port Moresby and Madang, the aspect of moral panic may involve micro-ethnic conflict, sexual attack, and quality and repertoire of musical performance. However, the cases from Madang reflect more rural context than Port Moresby in the sense that both musicians and audiences are grassroots, whereas in Port Moresby the musicians tend to be widely recognized social figures. Thus in the Madang area, the complex of violence and music is exemplary of cultural production of the grassroots. The nature of violence, aside from direct causes such as the alcohol or personal feud, exists in the ideological effect of 'addressing' of singing voices. The singing voice, which always follows the phonetics of native languages and Melanesian Pidgin in the case of grassroots pops, becomes subject to imagining who is singing. The worst, occasionally violent reaction, is the consequence of a "White men's song", which is either copy of Western pop or an original that makes use of hard rock-style complex chords or a slow tempo like rock ballad. A grassroots audience clearly imagines a non-Papua New Guinea face behind such a singing voice, even if the singer is a Papuan or Melanesian, and reacts with negative comment or violence. The sense of 'being made resonate' with the sound of White men's song leads grassroots audience to the feeling of alienation and deprivation of identity. In the cases of a denied romantic approach leading to sexual violence, which in one case resulted rape, listening to grassroots music that romanticizes local and lived spaces of life, such as a lover, surmounts the feeling of lack. Along with the beat of reggae that often incorporates words from local traditional dance, the grassroots music may alienate the audience by creating a feeling of loss, such as feeling that The voice that is singing, is not I.' Even if the music is sung in a pleasant voice, emotive contents, and played in a dancing rhythm, when it is felt as an addressing voice, it makes an awareness in the audience that he or she is not the one who is singing, or who is expressing feelings so deeply.
著者
陳 仲奇
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.1-18, 2005-01

The national project of checking, punctuating and republishing the twenty-five Chinese historical classics was initiated by Mao Zedong in 1958, but failed to continue due to Culture revolution started in 1966. However, under Mao's instruction it proceeded in 1971. The power struggle over the leading position in the project between Zhou Enlai and Yao Wenyuan started as Mao's instruction was made. The special cultural project in this particular time (Culture revolution) represents not only cultural characteristics of this period, but also the considerations of those in power. Therefore, it can be regarded as the epitome of the power struggle of that time. In order to clarify the feud between Zhou and Yao, the thesis focuses on the events around the time when the project was restarted in 1971. It's based on the interview of participants of the project and classified materials collected in Beijing. The author's research "China Press and systemization of classical books in People's Republic of China-the background of checking, punctuating and republishing the twenty-five Chinese historical classics" is sponsored financially by (A) "Northeast Asian Publication Cultural Research Project." The thesis is part of the research achievements.
著者
別枝 行夫
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.131-149, 2002-03

The purpose of this study is to examine a political process of the history textbook controversies, focusing its consequences on Japan's international relations, especially those with China and Korea. The textbook issues have been debated since the postwar period to develop into serious diplomatic problems with China and Korea. Asian countries criticize that Japan's textbooks euphemize Japanese invasion of Asian countries and that screening of textbooks by the Ministry of Education is not inappropriate. The New History Textbook of Fusosha, approved by the Ministry in 2001, made Asian neighbors furious and created heated controversies both in domestic and international communities. As an extraordinary response of the Ministry, the textbook was re-screened. This study describes a political process of the above-mentioned problems through interviews with retired Chinese and Japanese diplomats.
著者
小林 博
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.4, pp.15-35, 2003-02-10

1. When we look back upon the recent years, the Japanese banks faced many events which were not thought of before such as (1)the collapses of several major banks (2)extremely severe and protracted bad loan problems (3)the consolidation among major banks forming four big financial groups and (4)the entrance to the banking industries by the non-financial corporations and the birth of the internet banks. 2. Public financial institutions which have long been criticized because of their size which is much larger than originally intended and their lending terms which are more favorable for the borrowers than those of commercial banks. Reform efforts of these institutions, especially the Postal Services Agency and the Government Housing Loan Corporation, are underway toward organizational restructuring and downsizing. 3. The results of the fiscal year ending in March 2002 of the Japanese banks deteriorated significantly. Net losses after-tax for all banks increased from 0.1 trillion yen of the previous year to 4.9 trillion yen. Main reasons for this heavy losses are (1)substantially increased credit costs due to the deflationary economic environment and strengthened loan classification by the banks and inspections of the Financial Services Agency (FSA) (2)large amount of write-off of equities under the low price level of the equity market. 4. The special inspection by the FSA had a significant effect on banks' financial results. However, special inspection covered only large, highly-indebted borrowers of the major banks representing only about 4 per cent of their total loans. More comprehensive and strict inspections are needed to recognize the true scale of bad loans of the Japanese banks as a whole. 5. Together with tackling the bad loan problems, the Japanese banks need to improve their profitability which is extremely low compared with those of the major banks of the U.S. and European countries. In order to achieve this goal, the Japanese banks need to make every effort to increase interest earnings and fee incomes. 6. At the end of July of this year, the Japanese government proposed that the government maintain full protection for non-interest bearing settlement account. However, this new proposal seem to serve to further delay the process of recovering by the Japanese banking system by allowing the weak institutions to stay in the market. 7. In summary, solving the bad loan problems, strengthening the profitability and the reform of the public financial institutions are three key factors for the future of the Japanese banks. In addition to the strenuous efforts by the banks themselves, the strong leadership of the Japanese government is inevitable including the overall reform of public financial institutions and the injections of the necessary public fund.
著者
ミカ メルヴィオ
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.109-120, 2003-03

The United Nations has made a significant contribution to international security by promoting alternative visions of security and keeping a wide variety of fundamental global issues on political agenda. Human rights have been high on the agenda since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which still stands as the foundation of all attempts to fight against human rights abuses. Similarly, the United Nations kept environment on the international political agenda ever after the Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972 ended. At the same time a whole new vocabulary has been created to deal with environmental and human security threats. However, there are limits to what the United Nations system and its supporters can do since many of its member states are less than enthusiastic about placing priority on human rights or environmental concerns in their domestic and foreign policies. Unfortunately, all too many countries waste resources promoting their narrow and selfish short-term interests and satisfying their nationalist sentiments instead of promoting long-term solutions to pressing global problems. The so-called green political agenda has been adopted quite unevenly in the world in geographic terms and within most societies there can be found deep divisions in terms of degrees of human rights or environmental concern. This article analyses the situation of human rights and human security and how these concerns are addressed in the foreign policies of the United States, European countries and various countries in the Northeast Asia region. The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 had a deep impact on international relations in all parts of the world after the United States made its war against terror its first priority and in international politics there seems to be an upsurge of unilateralism, militarism and nationalism. However, at the same co-operation to strengthen the international law and make it more effective against human rights violations has continued and there have been important results such as establishment of the International Criminal Court and fight against torture. For the time being the human rights policies of such countries as Japan, the United States, Russia and the countries of the European Union have grown all the time more dissimilar to each other, reflecting deep ideological and sociological differences as well as differences in policy priorities.
著者
陳 仲奇
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.55-71, 2005-12

The thesis of this paper is based on the following hypothesis. Cultural communications between Japan and China are represented by words of the same characters in Japanese and Chinese. During the May 4th Era, China borrowed many new words from Japan. The majority of the new Japanese words, written in the same characters as Chinese, have been absorbed into the Chinese language and used by the Chinese in daily life without any sense of incongruity as if they were native Chinese words. However, some Japanese words with the same characters but different meanings have not been absorbed by Chinese society, as if the stones carried by the waves in the high tide were left scattered on the beach on the ebb tide, which may also be characteristic of the cultural communications between the two countries. The works of Luxun are representative of this. It is in the light of the original age of the particular works and the original language environment that the "marks" of cultural communications between the two countries can be understood and clarified. Only in this way can the wordings be analyzed. Through an analysis of Luxun's works in this may, many Japanese expressions were found.
著者
大橋 敏博
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.85-91, 2002-03-25

American Association of Fundraising Counsel estimated total charitable contributions in the United States of America at $203.45 billion for 2000, 2.0 percent of Gross Domestic Product. As for the corporate giving, total corporate charitable contributions were estimated to have been $10.86 billion in 2000, an increase of 12.1 percent over 1999. In the history of charitable contributions in the United States of America, the role of business corporations were not so important in amount owing to the doctrine of ultra vires. In the case of A.P. Smith MFG. CO. v. Barlow et al., Supreme Court of New Jersey declared that business corporation's contribution for general maintenance of privately supported educational institution was not an ultra vires act, and that corporate power to make reasonable charitable contributions existed under modern conditions. This was a turning point in the history of corporate charitable contributions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the case and the influences in the history of corporate charitable contributions.
著者
川中 淳子
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.1-14, 2003-08-22

The first study on school refusal was reported in the 1940's in America. In Japan, the first study on it was in 1959. Now about 45 years have passed and since then more than 1000 studies have been reported. Some of these refer to self help groups for parents of school refusal children. Now self help groups have been held in all parts of Japan. It is said that these groups have a supportive effect. So this paper reviews these reports and studies, such groups' significance, problems of the preceding studies, and so on. Further, I report the result of my interview with representatives of the self help group. Significance of self help groups for parents is being able to make company, being free from feeling isolation, exchange information and learn school refusal problem. A problem of preceding studies is lack of reference to the danger of the groups.
著者
豊田 有恒
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.97-108, 2002-03

The ancient relationship between NEAR-North East Asian Region depends on many uncertain factors. The reason why is very clear. There are not enough evidence to probe the historical facts. Our study to make them clear must need some kind of patience. The area today called Shimane was once devided into two parts, Izumo and Iwami. Izumo is very famous for it's favor of the sight-seeing spots of mithology. Many tourists visit prefectural capital Matue every year. The way to solve the problems lies on this point. It's mithology. The ancient chronicle shares many pages on Izumo mith. Yet there is no evidence to probe the existence of ancient Izumo Kingdom. Izumo Kingdom is thought to be only existed in the mithological world. But in order to solve the problems, a key which can make us to guide the world of mithology, has an important role in area studies. We must need a view point to research NEAR area. The most important area is Silla (新羅). Japanese mith has a tale of a vagabond prince from Silla. His name is Susanoh, who is very famous for dragon-slaying. He killed eight-headed hydra, Yamatano-oroti. This mithological pattern originned from Greek mith, which was called Perseus-Andromeda type. This mithological tale was brought from Greece after a long jouney across the Eurasian Continent. As for the relationship between Izumo and Korean Peninsula, ancient Kara area is also important. Kara is a word to call Korea at first. For instance, Kara-kuni (韓国) means Korea itself. Ancient Kara was not a dynasty, but a league of farmers village nations. Those kinds were called by Max Weber "Bauerngemeinwesen" (Farmer's community). From this area, on the south end of Korean Peninsula, many imigrants or say refugees visited Japan Archipelago and brought a lot of chinese cultures which was already brought to Korea and translated into Korean language that had philologically same origins to Japanese. Many years afterward, Japanese forgot the influences from Korea. Or, to speak frankly, Our ancestors tried to neglect the influences from Korea as possible as we could. In 8th century Japanese began to send big delegations to Chinese Tang dynasty which made many cultural shocks such as "Law and Administration Systems" (律令制度) to Japan. The delegation from Japan to China was always confronted the power of outer sea where many ships wrecked and many young and talented student drowned. At last the Japanese government stopped to dispatch delegations to China for the fatal risks. So, us Japanese has a tendensy to over-estimate the role of China-delegation (遣唐使). It was caused by our nationalistic way of thinking in which we easily tried to think that our ancestors earned Chinese advanced civilization on our own risk of those brave voyage to China. Before the delegations to China, there were many anonimous Korean imigrants who gave us those knowledge of how to write, how to make Buddha statues, how to find gold mine, and how to construct temples or palaces. On this point, importance of Kara (加羅) was increased not only for Izumo but also for Japanese every districts. Especially Izumo has a lot of relations to Kara, for instances as those names of shrines, temples and places. I am going to make it clear about those relationship of Izumo and ancient Kara district.
著者
横田 禎昭
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.71-78, 2003-03-28

The Shajing (沙井) culture is named for the Shajing site in Minqin (民勤) xian of Kansu (甘粛) province where it was first discovered in 1924, by J.G.Andersson. The Shajing culture graves were discovered in Yulingou (楡樹溝), Yongdeng xian; Sanjiao-cheng (三角城), Hamadun (蛤蟆〓), Yong-chang xian in Kansu province, and Hoxi-Corridor in Qilian (祁連) mountains and Badanjilin (巴丹吉林) Desert. Many bronze and a few iron wares buried with them were also found. Those bronze wares are accessories such as tubular ornaments, belt buckles, buttons, knives, pendants and golden-ear rings. They are animal-styles and common in Northan (Ordos) Bronze Culture. It also shows their kinships and culture fostered by the mounted nomads in North Eurasia, especially in South Siberia. The carbon-dated (estimated age) for Shajing Culture is around B.C.1300-B.C, 789. That is at the late stage of the Yin (殷) Dynasty or at the beginning of Western Zhou (西周) to Spring and Autumn (春秋) period. From the age, the distribution of the area can be inferred that the Shajing culture belongs to the ancient Yuezhi (月氏) nationality.
著者
謝 富勝 張 忠任
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, pp.123-132, 2004-03-16

Investment in technological innovation (ITI) plays an important role in the process of economic development in China. The paper explores and illustrates mainly ITI's characteristics and tendency as well as questions, such as; (1)ITI had made vital contribution in the process of economic development in China, But that the percentage of ITI to total investment in fixed assets (TIFA) is falling continuously expresses that the policy of science and technology in China should be rectified. (2)The percentage of central ITI is increasing from the perspective of the percentage of central and local ITI, but the percentage of local ITI remains 60 percent, so the local ITI should be emphasized in the future. (3)Enterprise's fund-raising is in the highest flight from the perspective of the percentage of central and local ITI, so it is necessary to adjust the enterprise's policy of science and technology in China. (4)The percentage of privately-owned ITI is increasing constantly, but the percentage of public-owned ITI remains 55 percent, so the future adjustment of the policy of science and technology in China should focus more on privately-owned ITI. (5)During 20 years from the Fourth 5-year Plan to the Seventh 5-year Plan, the East are increasing constantly and the West lowest and the Middle reducing constantly in the percentage of ITI. All regions are falling from the perspective of per capita ITI, but the highest is the West and the lowest the East, for which involved the formation of social capital. To the West, it would be the investment in capital construction that should be emphasized rather than ITI.
著者
小林 博
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, pp.51-61, 2005-03

In eastern part of Russia including Sakhalin, there are many oil and gas projects which are ongoing or at the planning stage. In order for these projects to be developed successfully, huge amount of fund raising is required. Even though the number of banks is very large, second in the world after the United States, the Russian banking system is very underdeveloped. As a result, it is extremely difficult to finance big oil and gas projects domestically. Accordingly, the large scale external financing is necessary so that the oil and gas projects would be developed successfully. To finance huge amount of fund externally for oil and gas projects, the finance technique of project finance is used in many cases. Usually, international development banks and official credit agencies of the advanced countries take part in the project finance. These banks and agencies take the political risks of the projects. In addition to these international development banks and official credit agencies, many parties take part in the project finance. These parties are sponsor companies, constructing companies, management companies, commercial banks, sellers of raw materials, buyers of products and so on. These parties share the risks involved in the projects. In the case of big oil and gas projects in Russia, the project finance is expected to be used to raise the fund. If the commercial banks do not join the financing of those projects because the project finance is not structured successfully, the projects will be greatly scaled down.
著者
尹 芝恵
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
総合政策論叢 (ISSN:13463829)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.10, pp.73-89, 2005-12

In the course of the resumption of friendly relations between Japan and Korea after Toyotomi Hideyoshi's invasion of the Korean Peninsula, a delegation was instituted. The Korean delegation consisted of 400 to 500 people including three main ambassadors, official painters, medical doctors, translators and Band musicians, etc. The delegation visited Japan 12 times between 1607 and 1811. This 200-year-long cultural exchange between Korea and the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan produced in both countries many kinds of pictures which related to the delegation. Some of which were pictures produced by the members of the Embassy and others were by Japanese painters. For example, we can classify these pictures according to the following themes: the magnificent parade of Korean members either by ship or on foot, the welcome-parties with Japanese hospitality and the portraits of the representative ambassadors. As time passed during the Tokugawa shogunate, the people in the Edo period grew richer and more refined, and became more interested in the Korean delegation. Ukiyo-e artists designed illustrated narrative books and published them. It is said that, for the Tokugawa shogunate, the Korean delegation was a symbolic medium to show how international the Tokugawa shogunate was. In this respect, very skillful painters in the Edo period were officially employed and maintained by the shogun. But the Ukiyo-e artists were designed and printed based on entertainment for the ordinary people of that time. I will focus on the Band musicians represented in folding screens, roll screens, and Ukiyo-e etc. The reason for this is that the images of the Band musicians were transformed. They were louder than reality. But the deformation shows strong the impression given to the public. And, at the same time, it also shows the image of aliens which the public also expected.