著者
林 直道
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, pp.141-151, 2004-01

1) Lord Teika Fujiwara was the most famous poet during the last Heian and early Kamakura period. He was poor and low in position. But the ex-emperor Gotobain judged Teika's talent and appointed him to an official of Waka (poem) Bureau since when Teika could make a brilliant figure in the circle of court poetry. Their honeymoon, however, could not continue so long. Several times they fell out owing to the opposition of appraisal of poem. At last Teika was convicted to the house arrest on the charge of ill-omened poem making. 2) In 1221 Gotobain as the top leader of aristocracy decided to overthrow the Kamakura Shogunate and rose in coup d'Etat. But, he could gather the military forces merely 25 thousands of persons, and was defeated by the 195000 strong troop of Shogunate. Gotoba was caught and exiled to Oki Island, one of the solitary island far out on the Nippon-Kai (Sea of Japan). His third Imperial Prince ex-emperor Juntoku was exiled to Sado-Island. This war is called 'the revolt of Jokyu.' 3) By contrast with Gotobain's tragic destiny, Teika succeeded in life under the patronage of new Emperor Gohorikawa who had acceded to the throne as the puppet of Kamakura Shogunate. Teika and his sun Tameie advanced to the high position. Teika was crowned with glory to edit by himself the new anthology collected by Imperial Command. Teika would not send the only letter of sympathy and the only present of consolation to Gotobain who was obliged to send a miserable life under despair and loneliness. 4) It was natural that Gotobain and his close associates criticized Teika's attitude unfavorably as the shameless and ungrateful one. When Gotobain edited a new poetical composition matches named "Jidai-Fudo-Utaawase, " he compiled Fujiwara letaka, who showed great sincerity to him, with the excellent female poet, Mise Onono-Komachi. On the contrary, Gotobain compiled Teika, who went back on him, with the second classed poet, Prince Motoyoshi. So many historian have looked on as if Gotobain and Teika, these two prominent poets ended their life excluding each other. 5) But, this view is not correct. Gotobain in his later years edited a very extraordinary poetical composition matches named "Poetical composition matches of two Lord Teika-Ietaka, " in which Teika was written on the left side and Ietaka on the right side. Most remarkable point is the special character of Teika's poems. Among 50 poems, the inhalt of the first half about 30 poems are exclamation to the uncertain change of beautiful nature and flowering plant. And the inhalt of the second half about 20 poems are the sympathy to the tragic destiny of lifelong separated person, and the bitter sorrow. We feel as if Teika appeal to Gotobain "Every night I am crying and fall in the blues." This poetical composition matches is the message of Gotobain to Teika that "I understand your genuine feelings." 6) By what reasons Gotobain his attitude to Teika made a complete change by one hundred and eighty degrees? The reason is nothing else than the appearance of Teika's "Hyakunin-isshu (One Hundred Poems from One Hundred poets, 1235)." Upper mentioned Gotobain's Utaawase was edited during 4 years from July of 2nd year of Katei [1236] to the death year of Gotobain [1239]. Teika's Hyakunin-isshu was edited at May of the 2nd year of Bunryaku [1235]. Hyakunin-isshu is the most famous Anthology of excellent poems from one hundred poets in Man'yo, Heian and Kamakura periods. But, behind it, a wonderful elaborate device was hidden, which made a great impression on Gotobain. 7) Owing my decoding, the mystery of Hyakunin-isshu is as follows: (1) Hyakunin-isshu is a Uta-Orimono (Waka-Textile woven with words), which is composed of ten Wakas both in length and in width, and were woven each other by the warp and woof of connecting words. Each Waka has the word connection with four neighboring Wakas of right and left side and upper and lower side. Provided that, the corner Waka has two connection and edge Waka except corner has three connection. In the history of Japanese Waka, this word connection developed by way of four steps. Firstly, connection of two Wakas (Somonka of Man'yo), secondly, connection of several thousand Wakas in on horizontal line (Chokusen Waka Shu), thirdly, connection of double decker (Teika: Monogatari 200 Ban-Uta Awase), fourthly, connection of multistoreyed building type (Hyakunin-isshu). (2) If the connection words of 7 lines of right side of the Waka-Textile convert into picture, a beautiful landscape rise to the surface. Mountains rise in the surrounding part. Waterfall comes down in the central part. Big river flows in the lower part. Cherry blossoms, chrysanthemum, maple at the foot of mountain. Ditch reed on the shore of river. Various flowering plant in the field. Palace, temple, shrine, etc. This landscape corresponds to the reality of Minase country, in which the imperial villa of Gotobain was built. (3) At the four corner of Waka-Textile, there are four important persons. In Buddhism thought, the world (Mandala) is guarded by four Devos (Shitenno), who stand at the four corners of Mandala. Since this thought had been imported, Japanese intelligentia considered seriously the four corners of the thing. Well, Teika's Waka are put in the right-lower corner, in the position of Jikoku-ten. For one who comes not I yearn ; as at Matsuho, In the evening calm. The salt-weeds are burnt aglow. So parch'd am I for desire (translation by Haruo Miyata) "Matsuho" is the name of northern shore of Awaji Island. This Teika's poem expresses a pationately yearning mind for someone who comes not. Who is the someone no return? Because Teika's Waka is put in the position of Jikoku-Ten, the someone are put in the other three positions of four Devos. In the left lower corner, in the position of Zochoten-Gotobain. In the right upper corner, in the position of Tamonten-Juntokuin. These two persons are the ex-emperors, who were exiled in the prison islands and could not return to metropolis d. i. Kyoto. Furthermore, in the left upper corner, in the position of Komokuten-Shokushi Naishinno (Naishinno means the daughter of Tenno). Princess Shokushi was an excellent feminine poet and was the object of Teika's secret platonic love. She had died far previously before Hyakunin-isshu was edited. So, she could not return to this world again. 8) Hyakunin-isshu was sent to Gotobain. Perhaps the sender was not Teika, but Ietaka who was on friendly terms with Gotobain. Ietaka sent this Anthology in the form of Waka-Textile, taxing his ingenuity, under the strict censorship by the local agencies of Kamakura Shogunate. Successfully Gotobain could decode the secret of Hyakunin-isshu. Being suffered a great impression, he changed his valuation on Teika, and understood Teika's true feeling.
著者
石井 雅巳 Masami ISHII
出版者
島根県立大学北東アジア地域研究センター
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
no.29, pp.169-181, 2018-03

What made Amane Nishi translate western thoughts into Japanese employing Chinese character: kanji, whereas he was considered as one of strong advocates of the abolition of kanji? The purpose of this paper is to offer an integrated view on this seemingly conflicted attitudes of him. First, the present study compares his debate on the revision of national language and character with those of his contemporaries. This comparison demonstrates his linguistic view in the age of civilization and enlightenment. Second, this paper examines Nishi's approach to academic translation and it's impact on the current translation studies and philosophy of translation. In particular, we focus on his Japanese translation of the word philosophy. Our analysis will not simply juxtapose his academic usage of and the problematization of kanji. His intention was to create the national language and character in colloquial style that reflect the nature of spoken Japanese. His proposal on the abolition of kanji was a solution for fulfilling the goal. On the other hand, in his translation of academic concepts with kanji, he made a strong effort to preserve their original meanings (gi-yaku). He was particularly careful not to employ ancient Confucian expressions. It can be argued that Nishi seeked the establishment of modern Japanese avoiding the simple transcription of western language and the misappropriation of Chinese character coupled with its thoughts. Therefore, the paper proposes that his understanding of the nature of language and his linguistic practice, whether it is the debate on the revision of national language or the translation of western concepts with kanji, are the reflection of his consistent attempt at the creation of the new unified "modern Japanese". What we should not overlook is the fact that he unfailingly recognized the uniqueness of both western and Chinese thoughts.
著者
豊田 有恒
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.97-111, 2001-03

In the beginning of the 3rd century, the North Eastern Region of Asia was not yet known to China. The mainland of China was devided into three different dynasties, "Wei (魏), " "Wu (呉), " and "Shu (蜀), " which kept fighting each other for nearly half a century. Famous Chinese historian Chen Shou (陳寿) described "Three Dynasty Chronicles (三国志)" in which he introduced to Chinese court not only silkroad countries but also un-known Eastern races and countries. This document was the first description on those predecessors of NEAR, North East Asia Region.
著者
陳 仲奇
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.8, pp.1-18, 2005-01

The national project of checking, punctuating and republishing the twenty-five Chinese historical classics was initiated by Mao Zedong in 1958, but failed to continue due to Culture revolution started in 1966. However, under Mao's instruction it proceeded in 1971. The power struggle over the leading position in the project between Zhou Enlai and Yao Wenyuan started as Mao's instruction was made. The special cultural project in this particular time (Culture revolution) represents not only cultural characteristics of this period, but also the considerations of those in power. Therefore, it can be regarded as the epitome of the power struggle of that time. In order to clarify the feud between Zhou and Yao, the thesis focuses on the events around the time when the project was restarted in 1971. It's based on the interview of participants of the project and classified materials collected in Beijing. The author's research "China Press and systemization of classical books in People's Republic of China-the background of checking, punctuating and republishing the twenty-five Chinese historical classics" is sponsored financially by (A) "Northeast Asian Publication Cultural Research Project." The thesis is part of the research achievements.
著者
李 良姫 Yanghee LEE
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, pp.149-167, 2007-03-31
著者
別枝 行夫
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.131-149, 2002-03

The purpose of this study is to examine a political process of the history textbook controversies, focusing its consequences on Japan's international relations, especially those with China and Korea. The textbook issues have been debated since the postwar period to develop into serious diplomatic problems with China and Korea. Asian countries criticize that Japan's textbooks euphemize Japanese invasion of Asian countries and that screening of textbooks by the Ministry of Education is not inappropriate. The New History Textbook of Fusosha, approved by the Ministry in 2001, made Asian neighbors furious and created heated controversies both in domestic and international communities. As an extraordinary response of the Ministry, the textbook was re-screened. This study describes a political process of the above-mentioned problems through interviews with retired Chinese and Japanese diplomats.
著者
ミカ メルヴィオ
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.5, pp.109-120, 2003-03

The United Nations has made a significant contribution to international security by promoting alternative visions of security and keeping a wide variety of fundamental global issues on political agenda. Human rights have been high on the agenda since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), which still stands as the foundation of all attempts to fight against human rights abuses. Similarly, the United Nations kept environment on the international political agenda ever after the Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972 ended. At the same time a whole new vocabulary has been created to deal with environmental and human security threats. However, there are limits to what the United Nations system and its supporters can do since many of its member states are less than enthusiastic about placing priority on human rights or environmental concerns in their domestic and foreign policies. Unfortunately, all too many countries waste resources promoting their narrow and selfish short-term interests and satisfying their nationalist sentiments instead of promoting long-term solutions to pressing global problems. The so-called green political agenda has been adopted quite unevenly in the world in geographic terms and within most societies there can be found deep divisions in terms of degrees of human rights or environmental concern. This article analyses the situation of human rights and human security and how these concerns are addressed in the foreign policies of the United States, European countries and various countries in the Northeast Asia region. The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 had a deep impact on international relations in all parts of the world after the United States made its war against terror its first priority and in international politics there seems to be an upsurge of unilateralism, militarism and nationalism. However, at the same co-operation to strengthen the international law and make it more effective against human rights violations has continued and there have been important results such as establishment of the International Criminal Court and fight against torture. For the time being the human rights policies of such countries as Japan, the United States, Russia and the countries of the European Union have grown all the time more dissimilar to each other, reflecting deep ideological and sociological differences as well as differences in policy priorities.
著者
貴志 俊彦
出版者
島根県立大学
雑誌
北東アジア研究 (ISSN:13463810)
巻号頁・発行日
no.1, pp.245-268, 2001-03

I Under the Circumstances Leading up to the Foundation of NCTT : The Telecommunications Problems of the East Hebei District and Hebei-Chahar District before and after the Lukouqiao Incident II The Trend of NCTT under the East Asian Telecommunication Block System III The Reorganization of NCTT on the Final War System This article is a basic research for summing up the East Asian media history in the former century and establishing the historical viewpoints to foresee the forthcoming multimedia society in the 21st century. From the viewpoint of the political cultural media history, I argue various topics about NCTT, which was established in Aug. 1938 and was famous as the nonpolitical telecommunication company in North China. Fortunately, there are 2, 256 volumes of documents about NCTT written in Japanese at the 2nd Historical Archives (Nanjing). So we can research the wartime telecommunication block and control system by using them. Before the Chinese-Japanese War, Manchuria Telegraph & Telephone Co. (MTT) took advantage of the agreement to reform the telecommunication system with the Autonomous Committee in East Hebei and got the opportunity for invading beyond the Great Wall. After Lukouqiao Incident, MTT established telecommunication bureaus at Tianjin and Beijing and began to control the telecommunication system of major cities in North China area. But NCTT encountered many difficulties, which Japan's North China Garrison Army compelled it to undertake. And it had to manage its own business under the contradictory control between MTT, which was looking forward to construct the second Manchuria Kingdom, and Japanese Ministry of Telecommunication (JMT), which was seeking to extend the Japanese Style System. And to oppose against Chongqing Nationalist Government and the Chinese Communist Party, NCTT had to develop original and applicable technologies (ex. nonloaded cable, a Japanese telegraph code, and so on) and to seek "Enclosed Innovation" under East Asian Telecommunication Block Regime. In April 1941, NCTT was attempting to integrate and coordinate the East Asian Telegraph Telephone System, which included North China, Manchuria, Mongol, and Central China. This new system would mean that the JMT leading Japanese system would came to include the networks of North China and Central China. NCTT's Organization was changed into decentralized Local General Bureaus at Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao, Jinan, Taiyuan, and Xuzhou. In December 1941, as the Asia-Pacific War broken out, North China and Central China came to be important regions as military base for entering the South area. As the System moved to a wartime structure, rising prices and the lack of materials had serious impact on NCTT. In January 1942, according to the Telecommunication Business Agreement of East Asia Mutual Prosperity Bloc, a new mutual aid system was introduced to an integrated structure within the area of Japanese Imperial domination. But in fact, this united structure had many systematic problems. In January 1943, the Nationalist Government decided to join World War II , the managing condition of NCTT became tense. In 1944, the telecommunication functions were gradually paralyzed, so by 1945, NCTT could no longer manage them at all. On the other hand, in 1941, after the Nationwide Telecommunication Conference, the Nationalist Government was set to reform the domestic long-distant telephone network. And by using wireless networks, it could escape deviating from worldwide telecommunication networks. The contrast between these strategies and the visions of NCTT was remarkable.