- 東方学報 (ISSN:03042448)
- vol.87, pp.412-393, 2012-12
In the 13th century, the northwestern area of South Asia was situated between the two strong powers of the Mongols and the Delhi Sultanate. There were many small groups in that area trying to secure their autonomy as much as possible. This article deals with one of those small groups called Qarlugs. The first leader of the group is Sayf al-Din Hasan Qarlug, who was appointed by Khwarazmshah Jalal al-Din as a ruler of Ghazna, Kurraman and Bannu in 1224. Due to Mongol pressure, he was compelled to move toward Multan, though he kept occupying Bannu, situated on the route from Ghazna to Multan. Though they had been controlled by Mongols through shahna (armed tax collectors), Sayf al-Din's son and successor, Nasir al-Din Muh ammad Qarlug, tried to tie a matrimonial relationship with Giyat al-Din Balaban in Delhi. In the consequence, envoys were exchanged between Balaban and Hulagu Khan of the Il-khanate, in 1260. In the end, Nasir al-Din Muhammad was killed by Hulagu Khan based on an accusation of Sams al-Din Kurt, a semi-independent ruler based in Herat. Sams al-Din Kurt's aim seems to have been to remove an obstacle against his expansion towards the southern part of Salt Range and Sind province. Through the history of the Qarlug, s, we can see how Mongol rule and/or geographical conditions affected the activities of small powers in the northwestern area of South Asia.