樋口 雄彦
国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 (ISSN:02867400)
vol.108, pp.203-225, 2003-10

明治維新後、禄を失い生計の道を絶たれ窮乏化を余儀なくされた士族によって各地で入植・開墾が行われた。わずか七十万石に圧縮された静岡藩では、膨大な数の旧旗本・御家人を無禄移住という形で受け入れたため、立藩当初から家臣団の土着が進められ、荒蕪地の開墾が奨励された。廃藩後は県による支援も行われ、士族授産事業が推進された。しかし、同時期、藩や県からの経済的援助を受けることなく、独力で茶園の開拓に取り組んだ少数の旧幕臣グループがいた。赤松則良・林洞海・渡部温・藤沢次謙・矢田堀鴻らである。矢田堀・赤松は長崎海軍伝習所出身の幕府海軍幹部・エリート士官、林は佐倉順天堂ゆかりの蘭方医、渡部は開成所で教鞭をとった英学者、藤沢は蘭学一家桂川家に生まれた幕府陸軍の幹部であったが、いずれも静岡藩では沼津兵学校や沼津病院に職を奉じていた。藩の公職に就いた彼らには、無禄移住者とは違い、「食うため」には困らないだけの十分な俸給が与えられたのであるが、明治二年(一八六九)以降遠州での開拓・茶園経営に、あえて自らの資産を投入した。洋学知識や洋行経験を有していた彼らは、土質や害虫を研究し、先進地の製茶法を導入したり、アメリカへの直輸出を図ったりと、科学や情報によって地場産業を改良する役割を果たした。しかし、その行動は、苦しい藩財政を助けたり、国益を目指したりといった「公」を意識した動機のみによるものではなく、むしろ個人の営利・蓄財を目的とした私的経済活動としての側面が大きかった。廃藩に前後して上京、優れた能力を買われ一旦は明治政府に出仕した彼らであるが、遠州の茶園はそのまま維持された。海軍中将・男爵となった赤松は退役後には遠州に隠棲し、明治初年以来の念願だった田園生活を楽しむ。茶園開拓をめぐる赤松らの言動からは、官にあるか野にあるかを問わず、「一身独立」を率先実行した近代的人間像が見えてくる。Sliding towards poverty from the loss of stipends and livelihood following the Meiji Resoration, shizoku (former samurai) became involved in land settlement and reclamation projects around the countury. Shizuoka Domain, which had been reduced to a mere 70,000 koku, absorbed vast numbers of former hatamoto and gokenin relocated to the area without remuneration. From the domain's inception in 1868 (Meiji 1), the indigenization of retainer bands moved quickly as shizoku were encouraged to cultivate unopened lands. Following the domain's replacement by Shizuoka Prefecture, the prefecture continued to lend support to programs that encouraged shizoku businesses.At the same time that the domain, then prefecture, were lending support to shizoku, a small group of former Bakufu retainers began to cultivate tea independently without economic support from either government. Its members included Akamatsu Noriyoshi, Hayashi Dokai, Watanabe On, Fujisawa Tsuguyoshi, and Yatabori Ko. Yatabori and Akamatsu were both elite officers, products of the Nagasaki naval training center who had held executive positions in the Bakufu navy. Hayashi was a Dutch-medicine doctor with ties to the Juntendo in Sakura, while Watanabe was an England Studies scholar who taught at the Kaiseisho. Fujisawa was born to the Katsuragawa family of Dutch Studies scholars and had held an executive post in the Bakufu army. Each held positions in Shizuoka at either the domain's military academy or its hospital in Numazu. With official posts in the domain government, they differed from the unremunerated relocates and had incomes sufficient to "feed themselves." Still, beginning in 1869 (Meiji 2) they began to cultivate tea as a business in the Totomi region using only their own funds.With their knowledge and experience of the West, they studied soil and vermin, implemented the latest techniques of tea cultivation, and attempted direct export to America. With the science and information they brought to their business, they contributed significantly to the improvement of local industry. Yet, while their actions did aid the finances of a troubled domain and contributed to the benefit of the,nation, they were not exclusively motivated by "public" consciousness. Indeed, their activities were in large part private economic activities aimed at individual gain and wealth.Following the domain's dissolution they relocated to the capital where their outstanding talents were put to use in the service of the Meiji government. They continued to operate their tea plantation in Totomi, however. Following his retirement to the area, vice-admiral and baron Akamatsu pursued his early Meiji hope of enjoying life in the country. Whether in office or the countryside, the actions taken by Akamatsu and the others in the cultivation of tea cast an image of modern individuals at the forefront of "self-reliance".


Twitter (9 users, 9 posts, 8 favorites)

こんな論文どうですか? 旧幕臣洋学系知識人の茶園開拓--赤松則良・林洞海文書から (〔国立歴史民俗博物館〕開館二〇周年記念論文集)(樋口 雄彦),2003 https://t.co/Rz7siVaq01
2 2 https://t.co/MFKs6fN1Fn
樋口雄彦「旧幕臣洋学系知識人の茶園開拓-赤松則良・林洞海文書から-」(『国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告』108、2003年)は、赤松則良・林洞海・渡部温・藤沢次謙・矢田堀鴻ら静岡藩の旧幕臣たちの、洋学知識を活かした茶園開拓の意義を分析。 https://t.co/NOzg8knbjk

収集済み URL リスト