松村 和歌子
国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 (ISSN:02867400)
vol.142, pp.157-191[含 英語文要旨], 2008-03

春日社の宗教的分野での研究は、祭礼に集中しがちだが、祈祷や祓といった日常的な宗教活動こそ、宗教者と社会との関わりを考える上でむしろ重要だと考えられる。近年、春日社の下級祀官である神人が中世後期から灯籠奉納や祈祷などを通じ、日常から御師として崇敬者と深い関係を築いたことが明らかにされているが、こういった師壇関係の形成は、上級祀官である社司を嚆矢とし、その開始は、少なくとも平安時代末に遡る。本論考は、社司を中心に中世の春日社祀官の私的な祈祷への関わりなど、日常的な宗教者としての営みを出来るだけ具体的に論述しようとしたものである。❶章社司における御師活動の萌芽、❷章社司の御師活動の展開では、平安末から貴族の参拝・奉幣の際、社司が中執持ちとして祝詞奏上を行うようになり、日常から師檀関係を結ぶこと、同時期に宗教者として個性的な役割を果たす社司が現れ、その活躍は霊験譚にも描かれることを示した。また霊験譚自体が社司によって創り出され、記録や社記の注進等を通じて広められた場合があったことを述べた。鎌倉時代以降には、貴族の御師として重要度が更に増し、社司の任官を左右する場合もあったこと、貴族の邸内社の祭祀等その活動は、社外にも及んだことを示した。またこの動向は、他の有力神社にも共通する傾向であることにも触れた。❸章御師活動と奉幣の近世への展開では、社司の御師としての活動が近世に継続される一方、神人の御師としての活躍が中世初期に遡るであろうことを示した。さらに奉幣が、御幣またおはけ戴きとして、近世にもつながる信仰のあり方であった可能性を述べた。❹章宮廻と度数詣、❺章南円堂勤仕から南円堂講へでは、中世末に春日社で度数祓が祈祷として定着する以前、春日社諸社を廻る宮廻と本社・若宮を往還する度数詣がポピュラーかつ重要な信仰のあり方で、代勤という形で祈祷ともなり、近世にも継続したことを示した。また、春日社祀官により行なわれた南円堂勤仕は、南円堂・春日社を往還する度数詣、興福寺境内を含む宮廻、奉幣祝詞などを内容とするもので、春日講に先行する春日祀官の講的結縁として重要であること、また願主を得て行なわれ、祈祷ともなったことなどを紹介した。Religious studies research on Kasuga Shrine has tended to focus on ceremonies and rites. However, everyday religious activities such as prayer and purification rituals are important when considering relations between priests and society.It has recently come to light that from the latter part of the Middle Ages, lower ranking priests of Kasuga Shrine called "jinin" established strong relationships through the offering of lanterns and prayers with worshippers who served as "oshi". The formation of this relationship between priests and lay people began with higherranking priests called shashi and dates back at least to the end of the Heian period. This paper describes in as much detail as possible the activities of everyday worshippers through their relationship with the personal prayers of Kasuga Shrine priests, primarily shashi, in the Middle Ages.The first two chapters discuss the emergence and development of oshi activities in connection with shashi. From the end of the Heian period, a shashi would recite prayers as an intermediary when members of the nobility worshipped or made offerings. This established a relationship between priests and lay people and at the same time there emerged shashi who began to fulfill distinctive roles as priests. Their activities are also described in "Reikentan" (miraculous tales). "Reikentan" were also produced by shashi and in some cases they became widely known through reports in written records and shrine chronicles.From the time of the Kamakura period onward, the importance of nobles as oshi increased and there were even cases where they had an influence on the appointment of shashi. Their activities extended beyond the shrine, as they sometimes officiated in small shrines situated in the compounds of noble persons. A similar trend also existed in other major shrines.The third chapter examines the development of activities and offerings by oshi in the Early Modern period. While the involvement of shashi in oshi activities continued during the Early Modern period, the involvement of jinin in oshi activities most probably went back as far as the early part of the Middle Ages. The chapter also discusses the possibility that offerings made in the form of "gohei" or "ohake" were part of a religious practice that can be linked to the Early Modern period as well.The fourth chapter looks at visits to other shrines and frequent visits to Kasuga shrine and the fifth chapter discusses officiating in Nanendo through to giving recitations in Nanendo. Before frequent purification rituals became established as prayers at Kasuga Shrine at the end of the Middle Ages, it was popular to make frequent visits to shrines belonging to Kasuga Shrine and to make return trips between the main shrine and minor shrines. Moreover, this became an important religious practice and also became a form of prayer which continued into the Early Modern period.When Kasuga Shrine priests officiated at Nanendo, they made frequent return journeys between Nanendo and Kasuga Shrine. They also visited the grounds of Kofuku-ji Temple and recited prayers. This was an important part of the acceptance of Buddhism by Kasuga Shrine priests, which preceded that of pilgrams to Kasuga Shrine, and also led to an increase in people offering prayers.


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そっか、画像はっちゃうと、ツイートへのリンクはただのリンクになってしまうのか。。 前ツイートは、松村和歌子「中世春日社の社司と祈祷 (宗教者の身体と社会) -- (民間宗教の中・近世から近代へ)」より https://t.co/abv23ATrej
メモ3 松村和歌子「中世春日社の社司と祈祷 (宗教者の身体と社会) -- (民間宗教の中・近世から近代へ)」https://t.co/abv23ATrej
こんな論文どうですか? 中世春日社の社司と祈祷 (宗教者の身体と社会) -- (民間宗教の中・近世から近代へ)(松村 和歌子),2008 https://t.co/Ye9To45tIS

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