- 東方学報 = Journal of Oriental studies (ISSN:03042448)
- vol.91, pp.73-100, 2016-12
This paper considers the religious ritual system called the Jili (祭厲) system founded in the early Ming dynasty, and its relationship with Buddhist rituals conducted at Jiangshan (蔣山). Both were rituals conducted for neglected spirits, and were developed and performed from 1368 to 1372. The Jili (祭厲) invoked the content of the Daoist Huang lu zhai (黃籙齋), removing the Daoist priest and taking on the structure of being managed by the Chenghuang shen (城隍神) at the request of regional government officials. The ritual was carried out three times, in 1368, 1369, and 1372. The ritual of 1372 was the largest, and the idea that rituals had already been performed for the neglected spirits at the time of the previous two occasions can be detected. Ming dynasty religious policy was that the Jili (祭厲) was the most fundamental ritual, and institutionalized it as a matter of state policy for regular and nationwide practice. Provisional rituals were conducted in place of it until it could be fully established. After the Jili (祭厲) was established, it was conducted in 1372 as a compilation of the rituals for neglected spirits.