- 言語研究 (ISSN:00243914)
- vol.1950, no.15, pp.1-26,103, 1950
The writer of this article classifies linguistic forms as follows _??_ is definition of various forms is as the following:<BR>A form which is never uttered separately (by means of pauses) from other. form (s) is a bound form; all others are free forms. A free form which cannot be uttered alone is a clitic; all others are independent forms.<BR>It is sometimes difficult, however, to distinguish clitics bound forms, because clitics are. generally, although not always, uttered jointly with other form (s)<BR>The author explains first how to identify various fractions of utterances as the same form. Then he proposes three points..s the criteria to determine whether a form-is a clitic or a bound form.<BR>I) If the form in question can be co: ined freely with various independent forms, which belong to different classes because their functions and inflections are different, it, is a free form, i. e. a clitic.<BR>2) If other word (s) or phrase (s) can be inserted freely. between two forms united semantically, both of them are free forms Accordingly the form in question is-a. clitic.<BR>3) If two forms combined can change their order of combination, the two forms are free forms. The phonological structure of a form cannot be utilised as a criterion, because many clitics have similar structtres to those of bound forms. Of course we cannot depend upon the_meaning, too.<BR>It must be noticed, however, that clitics have such phonological‘ structures as can be uttered separately from other forms, and they are very ‘regular’ in relation to the words, with which they enter into close combinations. Ehglish ’-s of the possessive case is a bound form, because it has not such a phonological structure as can be uttered alone. The-e of Latin puellae is a bound form, because i t is not regular. Compare puerT, hostis, cornas, diei.