著者
吉川 延代 今野 義孝
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.189-196, 2011-03-01

Open-ended descriptions obtained from a total of 226 males and females in 113 couples were classified into 19 categories: ① economic stability, ② maintaining relationships, ③ understanding, ④ support, ⑤ cooperation and understanding of child-rearing chores, ⑥ discussion, ⑦ a sense of peace, ⑧ confidence, ⑨ balancing work and household chores, ⑩ housework, ⑪ priority of home, ⑫ health, ⑬children, ⑭faithful, ⑮ love, tenderness, compassion, and thanks, ⑯ smiling, cheerfulness, and pleasantness, ⑰ mutual understanding, support, and cooperation, ⑱ mental stability, and ⑲ equal relationship. As a result of factor analysis with promax rotation using the principal factor method, six factors were identified: "peace," "stability," "mutual understanding," "healthy home," "maintaining love," and "equality of child-rearing chores." Comparisons of three clusters (Cluster 1: High agreement in Communication, Cluster 2: Disagreement in Communication and Sense of Relief, Cluster 3: High agreement in all sub-scales) revealed that the clusters and the factors were not significantly related. However, couples in Cluster 2 were characterized as having poor communication skills and conflict resolution skills and as being less satisfied with the couple's relationship. Thus, couples in Cluster 2 may have problems with attaining mutual understanding, support, and cooperation.
著者
吉川 延代 今野 義孝 会沢 信彦
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
no.34, pp.169-182, 2012

It has been argued that there is a close relationship between bullying and self-esteem. This study sought to determine the relationship between having been bullied or bullying others and present levels of self-esteem. Participants were 349 students (194 male and 155 females) attending two private colleges in the Tokyo area. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring the frequency, degree, age, and types of bullying behavior experienced or committed. The Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Survey was also used to measure the levels of self-esteem. This Survey consisted of 10 items that revealed student self-worth, attitudes, and satisfaction with oneself. Results were as follows. In term of the frequency of bullying, approximately 30% of the participants reported having been bullied, 30% had bullied others, and 14% had neither been bullied or bullied others in school. The peak frequency of bullying was during elementary school and it decreased as students progressed from middle to high school. Participants who reported having been bullied or bullying others had lower self-esteem than the participants who had neither been bullied or bullied others. Participants who had been severely bullied verbally and physically had lower self–esteem than the participants who were not bullied. These findings indicate that being bullied in school has a long-term impact on one's self-esteem. Lower self-esteem may lead to psychological health problems that carry into adulthood. Therefore, measures to prevent bullying and restore the self-esteem of bullied students must be taken.本研究では、大学生349名(男子194名、女子155名)を対象にいじめの被害―加害経験と自尊感情との関係について質問紙調査を行なった。いじめ質問紙調査では、「いじめ被害と加害の有無」「いじめの時期」「いじめの様態」「いじめの程度」「いじめの原因」「いじめについての考え」を質問した。自尊感情の測定には、Rosenberg (1965)の日本語版自尊感情尺度を用いた。いじめの経験に関して、被害経験者は29.8%、加害経験者は30.9%、被害と加害の両方の経験者は14.3%、どちらかの経験者は32.1%という結果が得られた。いじめの経験者数は、被害に関しても加害に関しても小学校が最も多く、年齢が高くなるにつれて減少する傾向が見られた。いじめと自尊感情の関係については、被害経験者は、被害の経験がない者と比較して、自尊感情が有意に低かった。いじめの様態との関係については、言語的な暴力被害や身体的な暴力被害を経験した者の自尊感情は、これらの被害経験のない者よりも有意に低かった。また、これらのいじめ被害の程度が激しかったと答えた者は、いじめ被害経験のない者と比較して有意に自尊感情が低かった。いじめ被害の時期との関係では、小学校中高学年から高校にかけていじめ被害を経験した者は、経験しなかった者よりも自尊感情が有意に低かった。この点については、今後の検討が必要である。本研究では、いじめ被害経験といじめ加害経験と自尊感情の間には一定の関係のあることが見いだされた。今後、ポジティブな学校や学級風土づくりを通して自尊感情の強化・育成を図り、いじめの予防・改善に努めていく必要が指摘された。