著者
三本松 政之 関井 友子
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, pp.88-97, 1994

"Political Correctness" is a new vogue term in the U. S.. It rejects the traditions of the West and is used to refer to a correct ideological position on matters of race, gender, and sexual orientation. This paper is to describe characteristics of PC movement in the U. S.. PC movement is concerned with multiculturalism movement on campuses and a crisis in American higher education. We intend to make clear what is the PC movement, especially focussing on four aspects; language cleansing, cultural war, politicul struggle or empowerment and integrating nationalities.
著者
岡田 斉 萩谷 久美子 石原 俊一 谷口 清 中島 滋
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.87-96, 2009-03-01

Many recent studies have suggested that deficits in dietary-based omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids may make an etiological contribution to mood disorders and that supplementation with omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids may provide a treatment strategy (Hagg, 2003; Parker, Gibson, Brotchie, Rees, & Handzi-Pavlovic, 2006; Vaddadi, 2006). However, a few studies did examine the relationship between daily food intake and mood disorders. Thus, we surveyed students with regard to these relationships. Two hundred and forty eight university students completed the SDS and eighty item food appetite survey. Results showed that low-depression group tended to favor fish and deep yellow vegetables more than the high-depression group. These results suggest that a preference for fish and deep yellow vegetables relates to depression. Antioxidative effects of these foodstuffs may facilitate antidepressive effects of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids.
著者
大塚 明子
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
no.26, pp.39-53, 2004-12-20

As I have shown in previous papers, Japanese Modern Family, which was taking shape among the new urban middle class after late Meiji period, imported and adopted the Western concept of love as its basis. But throughout the pre-war period, this concept remained as a kind of abstract and rather unreal ideal. In Shufu No Tomo(Housewife's Companion), one of the most popular magazines for women, it was the traditional word"wago"(harmony), not love, that played a key role in advising the readers on how to behave and avoid troubles in the relationship with their husbands in everyday marriage life. The principle of wago was based on male supremacy, especially when sex was concerned.
著者
大塚 明子
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.33-41, 2003-12

Recently the Japanese urban family after the late Meiji period has been illustrated, in terms of its motherchild relationship and the stress on family affection, as a type of Modern Family. Taking this view, I have tried in some previous papers to analyze Japanese Modern Family through one of the best-selling magazines "Shufu no Tomo (Housewives' Companion)", especially its husband-wife relationship. Is the Japanese modern conjugal love very much alike its source, the Western romantic love ideology, or not? In this paper, I focus on how the magazine in the pre-war period looked on the problem of divorce and show that its concept of love, closely related its nationalism, was very different from romantic love as well as what we think of it today.
著者
星野 晴彦
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.115-122, 2010-03-01

社会福祉の先人たちの足跡や、青年海外協力隊のソーシャルワーク部門に志願する人々の熱意を見ていると、苦難の状況にあって、支援を必要とする人々のために献身し、自分たちを高めていくパワーを感じさせられる。このパワーはソーシャルワークの地道な実践の継続を支えてきたと言えよう。筆者はこのパワーは、ミッション意識を中核とする次のようなプロセスにあるのではないかと考えている。 「ソーシャルワーク実践に専心し、ソーシャルワーカー自身の中に、ミッション意識(自分たちがやりたいことでなく、社会から何を求められているのかを考え、自ら意味付けする)を抱くことで、自分へのこだわりを超越し、そして自分自身の生きる意味へと再統合していくプロセスである。」 本稿は上記のプロセスに関して、文献研究により検討した。特に、このミッション意識の意義について、そして実践現場においてこのミッション意識がいかに形成されるのかについて論じていく。筆者はあえてこの「超越」と「再統合」の重要性を強調したい。
著者
松嶋 淑恵
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, pp.185-208, 2013-03-01

性同一性障害概念ができたことにより性別違和をもつ人々に対する性別変更のための医療や制度が成されたが、性同一性障害は身体と異なる性自認をもつ事を疾患としてとらえる消極的な理解であるとともに、典型的な当事者にあてはまらない多様な当事者を不可視化している問題がある。また医学モデルに基づいた解決は、当事者を苦しめる男女二元論やジェンダー規範を揺るがさないまま当事者側だけが変化すべき対象であることを強いている。そこで、多様な当事者を対象に含め、量的調査法による実態調査を行い、特に経済状態の影響、他者との関係性、精神的問題について調査した。 その結果、MtとFt間で男女間および男性間の経済格差が見られ、治療の機会不均等に影響していた。典型的性同一性障害像に比して認知度の低い性自認をもつ人は孤独に陥りやすかった。また、性別移行に関する不安は、身体変容が満たされないことよりも社会関係上で望む役割が果たせないことから生じることが明らかになった。性別違和をもつ人々が社会から排除されずに生きるためには、男女二元論やジェンダー規範、性差別といった非当事者にもかかわる問題に取り組み、社会が変化していくことが必要であると言える。
著者
吉川 延代 今野 義孝
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.189-196, 2011-03-01

Open-ended descriptions obtained from a total of 226 males and females in 113 couples were classified into 19 categories: ① economic stability, ② maintaining relationships, ③ understanding, ④ support, ⑤ cooperation and understanding of child-rearing chores, ⑥ discussion, ⑦ a sense of peace, ⑧ confidence, ⑨ balancing work and household chores, ⑩ housework, ⑪ priority of home, ⑫ health, ⑬children, ⑭faithful, ⑮ love, tenderness, compassion, and thanks, ⑯ smiling, cheerfulness, and pleasantness, ⑰ mutual understanding, support, and cooperation, ⑱ mental stability, and ⑲ equal relationship. As a result of factor analysis with promax rotation using the principal factor method, six factors were identified: "peace," "stability," "mutual understanding," "healthy home," "maintaining love," and "equality of child-rearing chores." Comparisons of three clusters (Cluster 1: High agreement in Communication, Cluster 2: Disagreement in Communication and Sense of Relief, Cluster 3: High agreement in all sub-scales) revealed that the clusters and the factors were not significantly related. However, couples in Cluster 2 were characterized as having poor communication skills and conflict resolution skills and as being less satisfied with the couple's relationship. Thus, couples in Cluster 2 may have problems with attaining mutual understanding, support, and cooperation.
著者
星野 晴彦
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
no.35, pp.27-34, 2013

This paper attempts to introduce the concept of hospitality into social welfare services. First, the essential meaning of hospitality must be understood. This paper describes Derrida's thinking, which includes "the aporia of the impossible" that originated from Derrida's deconstructionism. This paper also describes the results of research into the hospitality mindset of individuals involved in the provision of social welfare services.Aporia means "impassable" or an "insoluble contradiction," which is why the term has come to represent "the impossible."There are practical limits to the extent that we can devote ourselves to social services. The needs of clients of social services exceed our limits, and we must consider the extent to which we will register this fact. The statements of Derrida may facilitate the introduction of the concept of hospitality into social welfare services. Rather than being limited to a superficial understanding, the statements of Derrida may help to provide a deeper understanding of hospitality in welfare services. 本稿では福祉サービスにおいてホスピタリティ概念を導入することを試みた。そこには、ホスピタリティを単なる「思いやり」だけではなく、本質的理解をしていくことが求められる。 そこで本稿では、本質的理解につながるものとして、デリダの脱構築的思想から導き出された「不可能性のアポリア」を紹介し、また筆者が行った調査の結果も示し、ホスピタリティの本質的構造に迫っていきたいと考えるものである。アポリアとは、「道がない」「通行できない」という意味で、ここには「不可能なもの」が見られる。しかも、進むことのできない道を横断しなければならないという「アポリアの経験」をデリダは主張する。筆者は本稿で、デリダの言説に着目し、福祉サービスは、自分たちが想定している以上の人々が求めており、それに対して対応できることには現実的に限界があるが、それにどのような責任を認識していくのかを考える必要があるのではないか、ということを述べる。ホスピタリティを福祉サービスに導入することが、皮相的な理解にとどまらないようにするため、デリダの言説はホスピタリティの本質的理解に一助となるのではないか。
著者
今野 義孝 上杉 喬
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.63-72, 2003-12
被引用文献数
2

Authors examined the effects of the positive mind-body experiences through Dohsa-method on enhancing nostalgic affects elicited by sound stimuli in undergraduate students. Nostalgia is a universal affect that results in a heightened mental state, an enhancing, uplifting mood related to particular memories of the past. Nostalgia is also entails the recognition and acceptance of past experiences, and may facilitate the positive reevaluation of life, strengthen subjective well-being and happiness, and enhance self-esteem as well, while alleviate depressive feeling in elderly people. Nostalgia also contains both the positive and negative aspects of affective experiences. The positive affective aspect of past could be enhanced under positive mind-body condition. This study consisted of two experiments. In Experiment I, a correlation between the EEG pleasantness and the positive mind-body experience induced by Dohsa-method was examined using a EEG Pleasantness Scale and POMS. In Experiments II, the effects of positive mind-body experience on enhancing nostalgic affects elicited by sound stimuli (e.g. the song of birds, the murmur of a stream, the sound of chopping vegetables, and so on) was examined. Nostalgic affects was evaluated by 10-item affective imagery scale. Results indicated that positive mind-body experience through Dohsa-method could heighten the EEG pleasantness, and facilitate nostalgic affects elicited by sound stimuli. These results suggest the possibility of developing a new version of Life Review method, that is Dohsa-method based Life Review, for elderly people.
著者
太田 和敬
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
no.27, pp.65-75, 2005-12-20

The Netherlands was regarded as a country that had succeeded in accepting immigrants because of the Dutch attitude of tolerance, while other European countries were suffering from the problem of minorities. However, in the 21st century, some political assassinations caused a conflict between the immigrants and the native Dutch. The National Security Service and the Ministry of Education investigated the political actions and influences of Islam on Dutch society and schools and published reports in 2002. According to these reports, there exist a few trivial problems, for example, remittances from foreign Islamic organizations to the domestic ones for the construction of mosques and Islamic schools and religious education in the Arabic language. These practices instigated a negative feeling toward Islam. There are two difficulties to resolve immigration questions, restraints of marriage of Islam and confrontation about human rights including problems of abortion and divorce. The Dutch Government has made efforts to integrate newcomers but is considered to have failed because of the high unemployment and crime rates and the low average literacy level of the immigrants. Dutch society requires the restoration of tolerance. This could imply the revival of new polarization although this was denied by the Dutch Government.
著者
田中 志帆 森下 春枝 功刀 梢
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 = Bulletin of Human Science (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, pp.149-162, 2017-03-01

The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of coping strategies and mother-child mealtime interaction on emotional eating. The sample consisted of 590 female junior college students. Participants completed a self-report to assess coping style (TAC-24), an emotional eating scale (EES), and a mother-child interaction in mealtime scale (MCIM). The results were as follows: (1) The image of mother as controlling and coercive during meal times, before the age of 18 was positive correlated with the coping style of buck-passing. (2) Cluster analysis revealed 5 subtypes on back ground of emotional eating, including BMI, the absence of the mother at mealtimes, and dissatisfaction with one's weight. (3) Cluster 2 (the greatest sensitivity to demands, a highly controlling and coercive mother during meals, the coping style is avoidance, and diverting reation) and cluster 4 (the image of mother as the most controlling and coercive during meals and the coping style is buck-passing) were related to emotional eating tendencies.本研究では、女子短大生を対象に、18歳以前の食事場面における母子相互作用の認識と、ストレスコーピングが、情緒的摂食行動(気晴らし食い)と関連があるのかどうか検討した。分析の結果、 情緒的摂食と女子青年の食事場面における支配・強制的な母親イメージ、一部のコーピング尺度と正の相関が認められた。続いてクラスター分析から、食卓における母親の不在傾向とBMIも含めた類型パターンの抽出を試みた。その結果、5つのクラスターを抽出し、第2クラスターと第4クラスターが、気晴らし食いに関連することが示唆された。第2クラスターは、BMIは平均的な値だが、食事場面での母親イメージが両価的で、責任転嫁と回避的な気晴らしコーピングをとるタイプであると推測された。第4クラスターは、食事場面での支配・強制的な母親イメージが最も高く、責任転嫁をする傾向があり、BMIが最も低いタイプであった。以上から、青年期の過食傾における回避型、責任転嫁型のコーピングと、食事場面での両価的な母親イメージの重要性が示唆された。
著者
市川 孝一
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 = Bulletin of Human Science (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.123-130, 2003-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to review books, articles and essays on youth and youth-culture in post-war Japan. People born after World War Ⅱ are divided into four generations, according to the time when they become adolescent.— 1960’s: Dankai-no-Sedai (first baby boomer in post-war period), 1970’s:Shirake-Sedai (apathy generation), 1980’s:Shinjinrui-Sedai (new-species generation), 1990’s:Dankai-junior Sedai (second baby boomer in post-war period). \nCharacteristics of each generation are described as follows: Dankai-no-sedai: spirit of resistance and protest, Shirake-Sedai: apathy and moratorium, Shinjinrui-Sedai: super-individualistic, ego-centric, Dankaijunior-Sedai: indifferent to others, lack of imagination. \nThese characteristics and traits have been gradually generalized as those of common Japanese in later times. And Japanese mass-culture has been influenced by youth-culture. Youth and youth-culture is a significant indication of future images of people and culture in general. It is the reason why we examine the changes of these features.
著者
岡部 康成 木島 恒一 佐藤 徳 山下 雅子 丹治 哲雄
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 = Bulletin of Human Science (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.26, pp.145-151, 2004-12-01

Until recently, the measurement of attitudes and beliefs has been limited to self-report questionnaires. The use of such measure unrealistically assumes that all the participants have both the ability and the motivation to report their attitudes and beliefs accurately. Recently, Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) developed the implicit association test (IAT) to overcome such limits inherent in self-report measures by examining attitudes and beliefs that lie outside conscious awareness and control. In the present study, we assessed implicit attitudes towards the supernatural power using two versions of IAT; the commonly used personal computer (PC) version and the recently developed paper and pencil version. Thirty-six undergraduates participated. Participants equally demonstrated negative attitudes towards supernatural power in either version. Moreover, the implicit attitudes indexes in the paper and pencil version were highly correlated with those in the PC version. These results suggest that the paper and pencil version of IAT can stand up to the use as more convenient method.\n本研究は、青少年の持つ非合理現象信奉の一つである超能力信奉傾向について測定する潜在連合テスト(IAT)の開発を主な目的としている。IATとは、近年、グリンワルドらによって提唱された質問紙法とは異なる方法によって認知構造を測定する技法である。一般的にはパーソナル・コンピュータを用いて測定が行われるが、紙筆版による測定も可能である。紙筆版IATは一度に大量のデータを収集する場合などにには有効な方法と考えられる。我々は青少年の超能力信奉について測定するIATの開発過程で、一般的なPC版IATと紙筆版IATを作成し、紙筆版IATの妥当性についても併せて検討してみた。今回の報告では、PC版及び紙筆版IATの結果からみた大学生の超能力信奉傾向について、また、今回作成した紙筆版IATの妥当性について報告する。
著者
堀口 久五郎
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.123-134, 2010-03-01

「精神保健福祉」という用語の存立基盤を探る基礎的研究として、1995年「精神保健及び精神障害者福祉に関する法律」と、1997年「精神保健福祉士法」という精神保健福祉を名のる2つの法制度をとりあげ、その用語の成立と普及・促進に大きな影響を与えた法令や政府関係資料を明らかにし、「精神保健福祉」の「定義」規定を検討した。本論において、「精神保健福祉」概念の基盤にある「福祉」と「精神保健」の関係の在り方を検討し、その位相を図表化して整理するとともに、新しい最広義の「精神保健福祉」概念のモデルを提示した。
著者
土屋 久 堀口 久五郎
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, pp.217-227, 2011-03 (Released:2011-03-24)

This paper reports on aspects of the healing deity Kanayamasama based on investigations on the islands of Hachijojima and Aogashima.Results are as follows:1) Kanayamasama is a deity that possesses an ambivalent nature with the power to curse and lift curses.2) Fujou caused by a curse is thought to cause illness on both islands. Because Kanayamasama possesses power to lift Fujou, she is revered as a healing deity.3) On both islands, shrine maidens play a large role in determining the character of Kanayamasama.In light of these findings, this study noted to need to understand health in terms of folk customs on both islands when discussing actual issues in the areas of medicine and welfare.カナヤマサマは、鍛冶屋のカミ、火のカミとして知られる民俗神であるが、本稿では、その治癒神としての側面を八丈島・青ヶ島での調査に基づいて報告し、両島における健康観の一端を考察した。その結果明らかになったのは、以下の点である。一、カナヤマサマは、呪詛の力を発揮するカミであるとともに、呪詛を祓うカミでもあるという両義的な性格を有すること。二、呪詛によって生じるフジョウが、病いの一因と両島では考えられており、それを祓う力をカナヤマサマが有するが故に、治癒神として祀られること。三、両島におけるカナヤマサマの性格形成には、ミコの果たす力が大きいこと。以上の点を報告した上で、両島の医療や福祉の分野に置ける現実的な課題を考えていくにあたり、両島が育んできた民俗レヴェルでの健康観に対する理解の必要性を指摘した。
著者
太田 和敬
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.30, pp.31-40, 2009-03-01

Few academicians thought that they would live to see the day when all students wanting to enter a university could do so, but that day has finally come. Universities' future survival depends on whether or not they can improve their classes and satisfy their students. To that end, we should analyze and share information on lectures with each other.This essay discusses my efforts over twenty years to improve my classes in order to enrich and encourage student's academic abilities.1. In order to let students prepare for lessons, I first made handouts and put them in mailboxes. I expected them read before lessons, but many students failed to remove and read them before class. Then I made textbooks, and now I put them on my web site.2. Students want two-way communication even in big classes. That said, Japanese are often too shy to speak before an audience so some techniques were devised to encourage speaking like giving points for speeches.3. Students should write down material in class, and I gave them opportunities to do so in reports, mailing lists, and bulletin boards. Reading what other students have written helps provide different views.I have used a web-based system to improve my classes.
著者
吉川 延代 今野 義孝 会沢 信彦
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
no.34, pp.169-182, 2012

It has been argued that there is a close relationship between bullying and self-esteem. This study sought to determine the relationship between having been bullied or bullying others and present levels of self-esteem. Participants were 349 students (194 male and 155 females) attending two private colleges in the Tokyo area. Participants completed a questionnaire measuring the frequency, degree, age, and types of bullying behavior experienced or committed. The Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Survey was also used to measure the levels of self-esteem. This Survey consisted of 10 items that revealed student self-worth, attitudes, and satisfaction with oneself. Results were as follows. In term of the frequency of bullying, approximately 30% of the participants reported having been bullied, 30% had bullied others, and 14% had neither been bullied or bullied others in school. The peak frequency of bullying was during elementary school and it decreased as students progressed from middle to high school. Participants who reported having been bullied or bullying others had lower self-esteem than the participants who had neither been bullied or bullied others. Participants who had been severely bullied verbally and physically had lower self–esteem than the participants who were not bullied. These findings indicate that being bullied in school has a long-term impact on one's self-esteem. Lower self-esteem may lead to psychological health problems that carry into adulthood. Therefore, measures to prevent bullying and restore the self-esteem of bullied students must be taken.本研究では、大学生349名(男子194名、女子155名)を対象にいじめの被害―加害経験と自尊感情との関係について質問紙調査を行なった。いじめ質問紙調査では、「いじめ被害と加害の有無」「いじめの時期」「いじめの様態」「いじめの程度」「いじめの原因」「いじめについての考え」を質問した。自尊感情の測定には、Rosenberg (1965)の日本語版自尊感情尺度を用いた。いじめの経験に関して、被害経験者は29.8%、加害経験者は30.9%、被害と加害の両方の経験者は14.3%、どちらかの経験者は32.1%という結果が得られた。いじめの経験者数は、被害に関しても加害に関しても小学校が最も多く、年齢が高くなるにつれて減少する傾向が見られた。いじめと自尊感情の関係については、被害経験者は、被害の経験がない者と比較して、自尊感情が有意に低かった。いじめの様態との関係については、言語的な暴力被害や身体的な暴力被害を経験した者の自尊感情は、これらの被害経験のない者よりも有意に低かった。また、これらのいじめ被害の程度が激しかったと答えた者は、いじめ被害経験のない者と比較して有意に自尊感情が低かった。いじめ被害の時期との関係では、小学校中高学年から高校にかけていじめ被害を経験した者は、経験しなかった者よりも自尊感情が有意に低かった。この点については、今後の検討が必要である。本研究では、いじめ被害経験といじめ加害経験と自尊感情の間には一定の関係のあることが見いだされた。今後、ポジティブな学校や学級風土づくりを通して自尊感情の強化・育成を図り、いじめの予防・改善に努めていく必要が指摘された。
著者
進藤 眸
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, pp.47-56, 1999-12-20

In the 1st report of successive studies, bibliographies on monistic understanding of the delinquency or the delinquency proneness, are reviewed by focusing on both the approach to basic character traits of delinquents and the approach to their degree of readiness to delinquent behaviors. As for the former approach, Aichhorn's latent delinquency, Friedlander's antisocial character, Glaser's differential identification, and Mizushima's lack of tie with socialized persons, are discussed. As for the later approach, the dimension of deviant personality which is related to the occurrence of delinquent behaviors, and the dimension of the delinquency proneness, by utilizing the MMPI, one of so-called structured personality tests, are also discussed. Through these discussions, I conclude that we should attract attention to following two problems, especially, if we intend to develop differentiating the delinquency or the delinquency proneness.(1)Because of limitations in constructing the measure of the delinquency, it is essential not only to measure the generalized delinquency, but also to make a clinical diagnosis concretely and dynamically concerning the nature of the delinquency.(2)It is necessary to analyze the psychological mechanism under which delinquent behaviors occur, by adding an analytical function to the concept of the delinquency proneness.In solving these two problems, we, at first, need to examine the delinquency proneness from a viewpoint of its developing process, in order to analyze the abovementioned psychological mechanism. Secondarily, We must hold the frame of reference in common for differentiating the delinquency, and follow the same judging process, if we take the correctional treatment into account, and understand the delinquency proneness in connection with it.
著者
鎌田 晶子 臼井 信男 吉野 大輔
出版者
文教大学
雑誌
人間科学研究 (ISSN:03882152)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.31, pp.153-160, 2010-03-01

商品に対する単純接触効果について、二肢強制選択法を用いて実験的に検討した(N = 88)。商品ごとに印象評定を行い(N = 67)、商品の特徴と単純接触効果の関係について検討した。その結果、はさみ、シャープペンシル、トイレットペーパーのような実用品については単純接触効果が認められ、花束のような美的印象や感情が喚起されやすい装飾品には単純接触効果が認められなかった。感情的評価と単純接触効果の生起の関係について考察した。