著者
嶋本 隆光
出版者
一般社団法人 日本オリエント学会
雑誌
オリエント (ISSN:00305219)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.45-63, 1990-09-30 (Released:2010-03-12)

Ta'zieh (passion play or representation of the tragedy of Kerbala), which is the religious practice peculiar to Shi'ism, in particular Twelver Imami Shi'ism in Iran, is said to have reached its zenith in the 19th century of Qajar Iran. We could observe in this practice two conspicuous yet rather contradictory characteristics; one is uncovered orgiastic eruption of religious passion and the other peacefully festive expectation.In this paper, present author will make an attempt to analyze this contradictory features of Ta'zieh by referring to Ta'zieh (ritual mourning specifically for the Imams and their family) in the period betweenca. 1885-1906 and 'Azadari (mourning for the deceased in general) during the Constitutional Revolution, thus comparing the two to find their correlationship.Despite the fact that frequent eruptions of unusual religious feelings were its concomitant, generally annual Ta'zieh-dari seems to have been performed more or less under control, whether self-imposed or imposed by authority, thus creaitng a peacefully festive atmosphere.Contrary to this, 'Azadari, when it was peformed under socially, economically and politically stressed conditions, could easily be trans-formed into uncontrollable force vis-à-vis unjust govermnent. Here 'Azadari was carried out just as if it were truely the Kerbela event. This transformative process took place chiefly because the participants of 'Azadari had been acquainted with the main themes of Ta'zieh through annual Ta'zieh-dari.The occasion of Ta'zieh-dari was the one in which the people were, whether consciously or unconsciously, “educated” to be good Twelver Imdmi Shi'i believers. Indeed its visual and auditory representation must have been of great effect. Under the critical historical circumstances those who had been “educated” in this occasion and imbued with the basic principle of the religion could easily turn into the warriors of “Holy War” with Imam Hosein against the enemy of faith.
著者
嶋本 隆光
出版者
大阪外国語大学
雑誌
大阪外国語大学論集 (ISSN:09166637)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.123-139, 2000-09-29

In understanding any given major historical event, it is of crucial significance to know an ideation system behind it as well as material conditions. The same is true with Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1 979. Islam is often said to influence almost every aspect of believers' lives, with its very base being religion. There is no denying that the process of the afore-mentioned revolution had been in one sense or another influenced by Islamic value system. Shaykh Mortaza Motahhari, who had been well-known as a prolific writer and orator before and during the revolution and above all a disciple of Khomeini, must have been one of the figures worthy of special description. ln this article, present author will scrutinise his interpreatation of divine justice (theodicy) and try to find its meaning in modern history. According to Motahhari, Godhead always exists as the very base of world order, in which every created thing has divine cause for its existence. In the human world, we observe inequality, discrimination, evils, etc. This ostensibly being so, however, even these negative aspects of human society (e.g. defects, ugliness, death, etc.), he insists, are divine creations, which have positive meanings in His order. ln this respect, even death is no exception. Motahhari tries to analyse the concept of divine justice ('adl-e elahi) and find a positive meaning of ideation system of Islam, by means of which he prepared the way to the success of Revolution.