著者
石川 元助
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.69, no.3-4, pp.141-153, 1962-03-30 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
1 2

The Ainu, a tribe who has inhabited in the northernmost area of Japan, the area which has traditionally been called "Yeso", used toxic substances of various kinds for hunting and fishing. Aconite (surku in Ainu), Ikema (penup in Ainu), Naniwazu (ketuhas in Ainu) and Aka-ei (aikoro chiep in Ainu), Japanese sting ray, were the most popular toxic substances used for the purposes.Since we have already published a report on Aconite, we should like to take up here the rest of the substances, that is to say, Ikema, Naniwazu and Aka-ei.1) Ikema (Cynanchum caudatum Maxim.)Ikema is a climbing plant. The Ainu mix beaten roots of this plant with the flesh of the salmon. They stuff salmon with this mixture and leave the stuffed salmon in haunting places of Bering Island Raven (Corvus corax behringianus Dyb.). Those Bering Island Raven who have pecked Ikema in the flesh of the salmon become intoxicated and giddy and loose balance to be readily captured by hunters.2) Naniwazu (Daphne kamtchatica Maxim, var. yesoensis Ohwi)This plant grows into a shrub of about 1 meter in height. The Ainu make use of the plant for catching Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger) by smearing its sap on a harpoon or lance heads.3) Aka-ei (Dasyatis akajei Müller & Henle)The habitat of Aka-ei ranges from the tropics, sub-tropics to temperate zones. When grown up, the fish measures 1 meter or so in length. Its caudal sting (about 7-10 cm long) contains a venom. There are three ways of using the venom for hunting:a) To use the caudal sting as a lance to stab bears.b) To grind the caudal sting into powder and to spread it on the arrow heads together with aconite.c) To stick the caudal sting to the arrow heads. The Ainu use it repeatedly by sharpening it when its head is broken.As is evident from the above descriptions, plant poisons are used in the cases of 1) and 2) and the fish venom in the case of 3). Where did these methods of hunting and fishing using poisons and the venom originate? In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to make comparative studies between these methods of the Ainu and those of other tribes inhabiting in areas north of Yeso, such as Gilyak, Chukuchee, Koryak, Kamchadal, Yukagir, Aleut and Pacific Eskimo. To achive this end, it may also be necessary to make studies on the religious aspect of their life and on ceremonies and rites practiced by those tribes with regard to hunting and fishing.
著者
石川 元助
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, no.3, pp.116-127, 1958-03-30 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
29

It has been said that the arrow poison (ayyop in Ainu language) used by Ainus in Hokkaido (Yeso) is prepared from the root of Aconite. However, no studies have been made on the chemical components of the arrow poison itself, especially from the point of Ethno-Botany.The author obtained some samples from a dozen or so of poison arrows stored in Anthropological Institute, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, and submitted the substances assumed to be arrow poison to chemical analysis. These samples were obtained from three poisoned arrow heads, two attached to two poisoned arrows (Sample Nos. F-259 and F-263), one from an arrow case (Sample No. F-407. Called pus-ni in Ainu language and probably collected in the Iburi area). The dark brown substance, assumed to be arrow poison, was obtained in an amount of 3, 1.5, and 260mg. respectively, from which poisonous principles were extracted and were identified as alkaloid by color and precipitation reactions.Further examination of their ultraviolet absorption spectra indicated that the alkaloid extracted from the arrow poison was a mixture of alkaloids of benzoic or anisic acid esters. Since alkaloids of this type are characteristic of aconite alkaloids, there seems to be a great possibility that the alkaloid extracted from the arrow poison originated in aconite.Animal experiments on toxicity could not be made due to the small amount of the samples available.
著者
石川 元助
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
人類學雜誌 (ISSN:00035505)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.70, no.3-4, pp.149-162, 1963 (Released:2008-02-26)
参考文献数
48

Stingrays are dangerous fish living in the tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate seas.They are classified into the following seven families; Dasyatidae, Gymnuridae, Myliobatidae, Rhino pteridae, Mobulidae, Urolophidae and Potamotrygonidae, only a few species having been studied by venomologist. The families dealt with in this paper are Dasyatidae and Potamotrygonidae.The representative species of Japanese Dasyatidae is Dasyatis akajei (Müller & Henle) called as Akaei, Ei, Ebuta, Kasebuta (in Japanese), Ai-koro-chiep (in Ainu). This fish, though not so delicious, has been widely utilized by mankind because of it habit and caudal sting. Its origin may probably be traced back as far as to the Paleolithic age (Magdalenian).Ainu has a lore that this Akaei is " a fish that causes earthquakes ". In Palau Is. of Micronesia, there is a tale that Rurr (in Palau ; stingray) and Kim (in Palau ; giant clam) fought each other.Caudal stings have been from old times utilized as arrow poison because of their barbs, and venom gland which secretes strong toxic substances. They have beenused as arrow heads especially by the Ainu, Negritos of Malay (Jakun and Benua), Mentawei islanders, and Indians living in the catchment area of the River Amazon. The caudal stings have also been widely used throughout the world as hunting implements and arms.They were utilized as fish spears by aborigines of northern Australia and Papuans, and were used as spears or harpoons in Micronesia (Truk, Palau, and Mortlock), and in Melanesia (Admiralty, Fiji, New Caledonia, and New Hebrides). As daggers they were employed in Mortlock, Admiralty, and Solomon (Ontong Java and Nukumanu).From Jomon shell mound of Japan many old stings have been excavated which seem to have been used as arrow heads or harpoon heads. This paper has been devoted to the emeritus professor Kotondo Hasebe, Tohoku University.