- 一般財団法人 アジア政経学会
- アジア研究 (ISSN:00449237)
- vol.56, no.3, pp.1-11, 2010-07-31 (Released:2014-09-15)
Manchoukuo, founded in 1932 as a Japanese puppet-state, was a compound-national state, in which it was difficult to enforce nationality law and family registration (koseki) law. ‘Nation registration’ (minseki) was enforced in 1940 as an alternative institution. The governments of Japan and Manchoukuo were faced with the difficulty of how to deal with the koseki of ‘Japanese subjects’, including Japanese, Koreans and Taiwanese, and how to treat their identities in Manchoukuo–this problem was exacerbated by the increase in the population of ‘Japanese subjects’ in Manchoukuo caused by Japan’s immigration policy. Japanese colonial rule required the Japanese, Koreans and Taiwanese inhabitants of Manchoukuo to have separate registered domiciles (honseki), which reflected their respective ethnicities. Changes in this status were not generally permitted. The Japanese government implemented the policy of requiring ‘Japanese subjects’ who had registered according to minseki also to register their koseki for the purposes of convenience. Consequently ‘Japanese subjects’ in Manchoukuo had dual registered domiciles, koseki and minseki. Although Japanese and Koreans had dual identities, ‘Japanese subjects’ and ‘Manchoukuo nationals’, the governments of Japan and Manchoukuo adopted the policy that ‘Japanese subjects’ had priority over ‘Manchoukuo nationals’. Consequently, minseki were subordinate to Japanese koseki.The majority of Koreans in Manchoukuo had been omitted from Korean koseki. In 1939, The Japanese Governor-General of Korea coerced them into applying for registration. Japanese government decided to adopt conscription in Korea in 1944, and a Korean resident registration law (Chosen kiryu-rei) was enacted to register the persons who had not resided in honseki in Korean koseki.In Japan, the resident registration (kiryu) law had been in force in 1917 to register the Japanese who had resided in places other than honseki. In Manchoukuo, therefore, the honseki of ‘Manchoukuo nationals’ recorded in minseki did not match their actual places of residences. In 1943, the Manchoukuo government also enacted the kiryu law so that they could obtain the actual addresses of ‘Manchoukuo nationals’.‘Japanese subjects’ in Manchoukuo were bound by a system of triple registration. Under Japanese colonial rule, the koseki system had played an important part as a ‘safety device’ to distinguish the Japanese from the Koreans or the Taiwanese. However, the system also had the effect of determining the honseki of registrants. Consequently, the kiryu system was indispensable as a complement to the above-mentioned functions of the koseki system in the Japanese empire.