著者
AONO Kenji IWASAKI Toshiki SASAI Takahiro
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-017, (Released:2019-12-24)

This study examined the roles of wind-evaporation feedback in the tropical cyclone (TC) intensification, with special attention devoted to the feedback in weak wind areas (domains where the 10-m wind speed is smaller than 5, 10 and 15 m s−1). This was done by setting lower limits of the 10-m wind speed in the calculation of water vapor exchange between the atmosphere and the underlying ocean in a nonhydrostatic cloud-resolving model. As a result, the surface evaporation is enhanced in outer regions of a TC where the actual wind speed is smaller than the prescribed lower limit(s). Results show that increasing the lower limit reduces the radial water vapor contrast in the lower troposphere (below 100 m) and suppresses the TC size and intensity at the mature stage by 30-33 % and 5-14 %, respectively, compared to the control run with all standard model settings. The increased evaporation enhances the outer convective activity and reduces the radial pressure gradient in the lower troposphere. As a result, the inflow and thus the inward advection of angular momentum were reduced and the enhanced convection in the outer region suppressed eyewall updraft, and thus reduced the secondary circulation and finally the TC intensity. Moreover, the outer region convection suppresses the rainband activity (within a radius of 300 km from the TC center). The contribution of the wind-evaporation feedback to the enhancement of the radial contrast of water vapor in the lower troposphere is a fundamentally important element for TC intensification, suggesting that the TC development process can be revealed more accurately by elucidating the role of the weak wind area.
著者
KAWASE Hiroaki SASAI Takahiro YAMAZAKI Takeshi ITO Rui DAIRAKU Koji SUGIMOTO Shiori SASAKI Hidetaka MURATA Akihiko NOSAKA Masaya
出版者
Meteorological Society of Japan
雑誌
気象集誌. 第2輯 (ISSN:00261165)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-022, (Released:2018-01-30)
被引用文献数
2

Geographical distributions of heavy snowfall, especially in the Pacific Ocean side of Japan, have not been elucidated due to low occurrence frequency of heavy snowfall and limited number of snow observation points. This study investigates the characteristics of synoptic conditions for heavy daily snowfall from western to northeastern Japan in the present climate, analyzing high-resolution regional climate ensemble experiments with 5-km grid spacing. The Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) and the 10-ensemble members of the database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF) historical experiments are applied to the lateral boundary conditions of the regional climate model. Dynamical downscaling using d4PDF (d4PDF-DS) enables us to evaluate much heavier snowfall events than those simulated by dynamical downscaling using JRA-55 (JRA55-DS). Over the Sea of Japan side, heavy snowfall occurs due to cold air outbreaks, while over the Pacific Ocean side, heavy snowfall is brought by extratropical cyclones passing along the Pacific Ocean coast. A comparison between JRA55-DS and d4PDF-DS indicates that heavier snowfall can occur due to more developed extratropical cyclones and enhanced cold air damming in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The geographical distributions of extremely heavy snowfall are different between two typical synoptic conditions, i.e., cold air outbreaks and extratropical cyclones. The difference is much clearer in the extremely heavy snowfall events than in all snowfall events. Heavy daily snowfall occurs in January and February on the Pacific Ocean side, in December and January on the Sea of Japan side, and in November and March in high mountainous areas. Saturated water vapor pressure is largest around 0 ℃ under the snowing conditions. Synoptic conditions from late fall to winter are closely related to preferable conditions for heavy snowfall over the mountainous areas where the surface air temperature is much less than 0 ℃ in the heavy snowfall events.