- 東洋学報 = The Toyo Gakuho (ISSN:03869067)
- vol.91, no.2, pp.193-224, 2009-09
During the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties periods, inspectors (cishi 刺史) of regional administrative districts (zhou州) were given the title, jiangjun 将軍 (generalissimo) before being dispatched to the districts they were to inspect. Serving under them were local officials, zhou zuo 州佐, whose duty it was to serve not only the cishi but also regional administrators (fu zuo 府佐) whom manned the jiangjun’s government. Little research has been conducted to date on the raison d’être of this bureaucracy, called zhoufu liaozuo 州府僚佐, through the Northern Wei and Sui periods, despite the fact that understanding how the zhoufu liaozuo system was organized and continued from dynasty to dynasty would 1) shed light on the characteristics of the local administrative systems of each dynasty and 2) allow us to reconsider the impact of the local administrative reform implemented by the Sui Dynasty.Unfortunately few sources remain explaining how the zhoufu liaozuo system operated during the latter half of the Northern Wei period, leaving its specifics unknown, despite its role as the origin of the Northern Dynasties and Sui Dynasty administrative systems. There is one extant source, however, a stone epitaph recently discovered in Ning 寧 Prefecture, Gansu 甘粛 Province that could help shed more light on how the system actually worked during the latter half of the Northern Wei period. The so called “Shangongsi-bei" 山公寺碑 was erected during the first year of the Zhengshi 正始 era by Shan Lei 山累, the cishi of Binzhou 豳州. The front and the back of the epitaph contain lists of the names of as many as 210 members of the zhoufu liaozuo bureaucracy and other local officials at the xian 県 level, more names than provided by any other source related to the period.This article attempts to unveil more details about the zhoufu liaozuo system through an analysis of Shangong-si epitaph, which indicates both specific titles and the hierarchical characteristics of the system. The source also provides evidence that many bureaucrats without aristocratic titles (liuwai-guan 流外官) were members of the zhoufu liaozuo governance mechanism. The epitaph also reveals that there were many non-Han Chinese inhabiting Binzhou at that time, some of whom held positions of power and rank ranging from the zhou to the xian level. Consequently, the author concludes that in Binzhou, efforts were made to incorporate influential non-Han Chinese local leaders into the dynastic order by installing them as zhouzuo or the liuwai bureaucrats at the regional government level.