著者
会田 大輔
出版者
東洋文庫
雑誌
東洋学報 = The Toyo Gakuho (ISSN:03869067)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.96, no.4, pp.31-65, 2015-03

After the fall of the Northern Wei Dynasty in 534, the Western Wei and subsequent Northern Zhou Dynasties abolished the current bureaucratic system in favor of the six ministries system (Liuguan-Zhi 六官制) originally laid out in the Zhouli 周礼.However, even today there are many things we do not know about this system, although in recent years research comparing the Liuguan and Sui Dynasty bureaucracies has progressed. Unfortunately, our insufficient knowledge about the former has posed a hindrance to such comparative research.Moreover, in order to improve our understanding about the political history of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the Liuguan system and the Bafu 覇府, the military headquarters from which Yuwen Tai, Yuwen Hu and Yang Jian (founder of the Sui Dynasty) wielded actual power.Although research is progressing on the institutions close to the emperor, like the Neishi 内史(governor of the capital) and Yuzheng 御正 (chancellors of the imperial household), during the first half of the Dynasty’s reign, these posts did not form the core of governance, due to the hegemony of Yuwen Hu. In order to contribute to the growing research, the present article takes up the Imperial Ministry’s (Tianguan天官) post of Sihui Zhongdaifu 司会中大夫, who during the era of Yuwen Hu acted as his assistant in coordinating the affairs of the Liuguan ministries.The research to date had understood Sihui as the minister of fiscal affairs and its control over the Liuguan System was thought to have been a temporaryone. On the other hand, Jiao Peimin 焦培民, identifies the Northern Zhou Sihui as performing the same duties as the head of the Executive Branch (Shangshu-Sheng 尚書省) of the Northern Wei’s three ministry system; however, since the Northern Zhou purposefully dismantled that ministry, it is difficult to conceive of the Sihui performing the same function.Instead, the purpose of this article is to analyze the functions of and appointees to the post of Sihui, in an attempt to clarify the relationship between the Northern Zhou’s Liuguan system and the Bafu.Based on the main text of the Zhouli and commentaries on it written by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄 during the last decades of the Later Han Dynasty, the author concludes that while the Northern Zhou Sihui was an appointment similar in function to the head of the former Shengshu Ministry, his authority was much diminished compared to his Northern Wei counterpart and consisted of coordinating proposals submitted by the Liuguan bureaus and reporting back the policy decisions made concerning them.Nevertheless, the post of Sihui was indispensable to the maintenance of the regime, ensuring the smooth functioning of government.For this reason, the Sihui was also appointed by the Yuwens and Yang Jian as a trusted member of the Bafu general staff and put in charge of administrative affairs, clearly showing an intimate relationship between the Liuguan system and the Bafu, as well as revealing one important characteristic of the Northern Zhou Dynasty’s bureaucratic structure.
著者
会田 大輔
出版者
東洋文庫
雑誌
東洋学報 = The Toyo Gakuho (ISSN:03869067)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.91, no.2, pp.193-224, 2009-09

During the Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties periods, inspectors (cishi 刺史) of regional administrative districts (zhou州) were given the title, jiangjun 将軍 (generalissimo) before being dispatched to the districts they were to inspect. Serving under them were local officials, zhou zuo 州佐, whose duty it was to serve not only the cishi but also regional administrators (fu zuo 府佐) whom manned the jiangjun’s government. Little research has been conducted to date on the raison d’être of this bureaucracy, called zhoufu liaozuo 州府僚佐, through the Northern Wei and Sui periods, despite the fact that understanding how the zhoufu liaozuo system was organized and continued from dynasty to dynasty would 1) shed light on the characteristics of the local administrative systems of each dynasty and 2) allow us to reconsider the impact of the local administrative reform implemented by the Sui Dynasty.Unfortunately few sources remain explaining how the zhoufu liaozuo system operated during the latter half of the Northern Wei period, leaving its specifics unknown, despite its role as the origin of the Northern Dynasties and Sui Dynasty administrative systems. There is one extant source, however, a stone epitaph recently discovered in Ning 寧 Prefecture, Gansu 甘粛 Province that could help shed more light on how the system actually worked during the latter half of the Northern Wei period. The so called “Shangongsi-bei" 山公寺碑 was erected during the first year of the Zhengshi 正始 era by Shan Lei 山累, the cishi of Binzhou 豳州. The front and the back of the epitaph contain lists of the names of as many as 210 members of the zhoufu liaozuo bureaucracy and other local officials at the xian 県 level, more names than provided by any other source related to the period.This article attempts to unveil more details about the zhoufu liaozuo system through an analysis of Shangong-si epitaph, which indicates both specific titles and the hierarchical characteristics of the system. The source also provides evidence that many bureaucrats without aristocratic titles (liuwai-guan 流外官) were members of the zhoufu liaozuo governance mechanism. The epitaph also reveals that there were many non-Han Chinese inhabiting Binzhou at that time, some of whom held positions of power and rank ranging from the zhou to the xian level. Consequently, the author concludes that in Binzhou, efforts were made to incorporate influential non-Han Chinese local leaders into the dynastic order by installing them as zhouzuo or the liuwai bureaucrats at the regional government level.
著者
小尾 孝夫 永田 拓治 岡田 和一郎 村井 恭子 佐川 英治 渡邉 将智 戸川 貴行 会田 大輔 岡部 毅史 齊藤 茂雄
出版者
大東文化大学
雑誌
基盤研究(C)
巻号頁・発行日
2014-04-01

従来、魏晋南北朝の政治史は、多くの場合、正史の影響を強く受け、各王朝史の枠組みのなかで論じられてきた。本研究では、こうしたかつての枠組みではなく、より大きな歴史的な視野での東部ユーラシア史のなかでその政治史を論じ直すことを目指した。そうしたなかで、各時代において、戦争、移民、交易、文化交流などが各王朝の政治に与えた影響を具体的に検証するとともに、一見国内的な政治事件に見える事件の背後に王朝の枠を超えた多元的な世界の影響のあることを確認してきた。また、魏晋南北朝通史の新しい時期区分についても提案した。