著者
樫本 喜一
出版者
大阪府立大学
雑誌
人間社会学研究集録 (ISSN:1880683X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.215-244, 2006-03-31

The scientific safety assessment of the Kansai Research Reactor, issued by the Science Council of Japan in 1958, was the first appearance of high technology in Japanese society, introducing 'Risk Thinking' or the first time into the scientific assessment of the professional community in Japan. Chapter 1 presents an outline of the Kansai Research Reactor and the Science Council of Japan. The citizens' movement against the Kansai Research Reactor was the first movement against a nuclear reactor in the world. Chapters 2 and 3 explore the apprehension within the Science Council of Japan concerning its safety assessment concerning the reactor, based on documents preserved by the Science Council of Japan and the Ibaraki city assembly. These chapters also analyze problems with 'Risk Thinking' that the constructor of the Kansai Research Reactor tried to use in the negotiations with residents of Ibaraki city. The paper concludes with a plan for the application of high technologies to Japanese society.
著者
野崎 泰伸
出版者
大阪府立大学
雑誌
人間社会学研究集録 (ISSN:1880683X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.3-19, 2006-03-31

What determines the content of justice? The consensus among subjects, justified by social contact, is one answer to this question. Current liberalism maintains that consensus is constructed by social contract - but does the principle of consensus among subjects really lead to the theory of justice? It is important to notice that the current theory of consensus implies that those who cannot satisfactorily participate in consensus are no longer subjects. This article insists that justice should not be based on consensus, but understood as a process of falsification, implying that justice should also remain provi sional.
著者
南茂 由利子
出版者
大阪府立大学
雑誌
人間社会学研究集録 (ISSN:1880683X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, pp.3-26, 2007

The gender guidelines for asylum determination are the legal instrument expected to compensate for silence concerning gender-related persecution in the Refugee Convention. This paper focuses on Canadian and US decisions concerning gender-related asylum cases in order to examine the effects and functions of these guidelines. My argument centers on the cases of Muslim women who sought asylum from gender-related persecution, supposedly caused by their 'oppositional' or 'unfavorable' attitudes or opinions towards the code of dressing, conduct or ethics of Muslim societies. By studying the description of these women refugees in asylum decisions, I show how they are defined as 'victims of Islam' and how their image as vicims is then used to convey a negative image of Islam. The case of Nada, an asylum seeker to Canada, is especially striking, because the media portrayal of Nadia's case was effectively controlled by the host country, while the Nadia's own view of Islam was both ignored and denied. Muslim websites and Muslim feminist writers persuasively expose the problematic issues that arise from such cases. This investigation leads me to raise questions about the humanitarian effects and functions of the gender guidelines. Indeed, the guidelines may have a detrimental function by fostering negative stereotypes of Islam.
著者
宮崎 真由
出版者
大阪府立大学
雑誌
人間社会学研究集録 (ISSN:1880683X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.73-94, 2006-03-31

Despite the liberty of individuals, the government sometimes compels an individual to refrain from a particular act 'for his/her own good'. This is usually justified by one of the following arguments: harm to others, offense to others, legal moralism, or paternalism. Our purpose in this paper is to examine the arguments justified by paternalism and to suggest more precise criteria for invoking paternalism. We have identified two distinct types of situations where paternalistic restrictions are justified. In one case, a person is acting in a non-rational fashion, while in the other, a person is acting in a completely rational fashion. There are some stronger arguments against paternalism in the latter situation. However, we may regard paternalism as justified when a nation needs to protect or promote its basic "goods", such as health, which any reasonable individual would want to have, as Gerald Dworkin has suggested, except that some individuals clearly express their will to refuse their basic "goods". Therefore, we admit that fully rational individuals' decisions should be respected and that they should pursue their own good. However, we can allow authority's interference with an individual's choices as long as that interference is related to his/her basic "goods", such as life or health.
著者
重信 あゆみ
出版者
大阪府立大学大学院人間社会学研究科
雑誌
人間社会学研究集録 (ISSN:1880683X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.171-197, 2006-03-31

This paper describes various roles that Xiwangmu assumed in each historical era of China, referring to the descriptions of Xiwangmu and Nuhuo in the Chinese historiographies. Xiwangmu and Nuhuo were both revered as goddesses of hosts, and comparing these goddesses can give some insight into the relationship between the Central Dynasty and Western Regions to which Xiwangmu belonged, as well as the relationship between the Central Dynasty and the Chu Culture which Nuhuo was part of. Xiwangmu is repeatedly mentioned throughout all the twenty-five Chinese historiographies. This possibly proves that the figure of Xiwangmu had some degree of importance in the Central Dynasty and also gives an idea of how people in the era perceived Xiwangmu. Notably in Shiji and Hanshu documents, Xiwangmu is depicted taking multiple forms such as a queen of the West, goddess of longevity, and even as the name of a country. However, the uproar of the Xiwangmu religion in the "Emperor Ai" period of the Early Han was a turning point for Xiwangmu to gradually become recognized as a goddess of relief from death among the civilians. At the same time, it can be speculated that in the Central Dynasty, the conception of Xiwangmu as a guardian goddess of the Han Dynasty, which diverged from her role as the goddess of the Western Regions, started to prevail, consequently fully integrating Xiwangmu in the Han Dynasty. Here, however, there is a question of why Xiwangmu came to be viewed with such considerable importance. There appear to be two reasons for this. One reason is the conception of immortality typically associated with Xiwangmu. And the second reason is the existence value of Xiwangmu was elevated, replacing Nuhuo.