著者
Rei YAMASHITA Nagako HIKI Fumika KASHIWADA Hideshige TAKADA Kaoruko MIZUKAWA Britta Denise HARDESTY Lauren ROMAN David HYRENBACH Peter G. RYAN Ben J. DILLEY Juan Pablo MUÑOZ-PÉREZ Carlos A. VALLE Christopher K. PHAM João FRIAS Bungo NISHIZAWA Akinori TAKAHASHI Jean-Baptiste THIEBOT Alexis WILL Nobuo KOKUBUN Yuuki Y. WATANABE Takashi YAMAMOTO Kozue SHIOMI Ui SHIMABUKURO Yutaka WATANUKI
出版者
Japan Society for Environmental Chemistry
雑誌
Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research (ISSN:24357685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.97-112, 2021 (Released:2021-10-11)
参考文献数
90

Plastic pollution, and its associated impacts on marine fauna due to chemical contamination, is an area of growing global concern. We analyzed 145 preen gland oil samples from 32 seabird species belonging to 8 families with different foraging habits and life history strategies from around the world for plastic additives and legacy persistent organic pollutants. The additives included two brominated flame retardants (decabromodiphenyl ether, BDE209; decabromo diphenyl ethane, DBDPE) and six benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs; UVP, UV326, UV329, UV328, UV327, and UV234). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites: DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexane: HCHs) were detected ubiquitously. High concentrations of PCBs (up to 20,000 ng/g-lipid) were observed in the seabirds from higher-trophic level taxa. These patterns can be attributed to PCB exposure via their diet and associated biomagnification. DDT concentrations showed strong positive correlations with PCB concentrations, suggesting that DDTs in seabirds are also a result of diet and biomagnification. Plastic additives were detected sporadically as BDE209 and DBDPE were detected in 16 seabirds from 10 species (range: 3–379 ng/g-lipid) and BUVSs were detected in 46% (67) of the examined individuals (range: 2–7,055 ng/g-lipid). UV stabilizers were more frequently detected than flame retardants because UV stabilizers are more widely applied to plastic products. None of the plastic additives were correlated to the presence of PCBs, nor were they explained by the foraging area or trophic level. High concentrations of additives were detected in the species with high levels of plastic in their digestive tracts. In some of these species, such as Hawaiian petrels (Pterodroma sandwichensis) from Hawaii and flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) from Western Australia, plastics were directly observed in the stomach. For other species, including great shearwaters (Ardenna gravis) from Gough Island, blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) from Marion Island, and black-footed and Laysan albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes and P. immutabilis) from Hawaii, plastic ingestion has been documented in literature. These patterns can be explained if the additives are mainly from ingested plastics rather than diet. The detection of BFRs and BUVSs demonstrated that a significant proportion of the examined seabirds accumulated chemicals from ingested plastics.
著者
Tae OHGAKI Hideshige TAKADA Ryu YOSHIDA Kaoruko MIZUKAWA Bee Geok YEO Mona ALIDOUST Natsuki HIRAI Rei YAMASHITA Takashi TOKUMARU Izumi WATANABE Siaw ONWONA-AGYEMAN Patricia GARDINER Marcus ERIKSEN Jay F. KELLY Carlos J. RODRÍGUEZ-SIERRA Laurent COLASSE Juan BAZTAN Fabiano Prado BARRETTO Gabriel Mendes IZAR Denis ABESSA Mohamad Pauzi ZAKARIA Charita S. KWAN Mahua SAHA Peter G. RYAN Steven WEERTS John OFOSU-ANIM Edward Benjamin SABI Lailah Gifty AKITA Heidi TAIT Cecilia ERIKSSON Harry BURTON
出版者
Japan Society for Environmental Chemistry
雑誌
Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research (ISSN:24357685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.75-90, 2021 (Released:2021-08-18)
参考文献数
67

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in plastic resin pellets collected from 65 beaches across 27 countries worldwide. They were detected at 49 locations at concentrations of the sum of 49 congeners of up to 46 ng/g-pellet and a median of 2 ng/g-pellet. These values are one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (median, 51 ng/g-pellet). This difference can be attributed to lower production of the Penta-BDE technical mixture, which is used extensively in some countries, and lower availability of brominated flame retardants for equilibrium partitioning than PCBs. Tetra-, penta-, and hexa-brominated congeners (BDE-47, 99, 100, 153, 154) were dominant over a deca-substituted congener (BDE-209) in many samples; this was significantly detected in pellets from some locations. Results indicate that pellets reflect the pollution status of PBDEs in the dissolved phase in seawater. From the ranking of the summed concentrations of six major PBDE congeners (Σ6PBDEs), we propose five levels of pollution categorization (ng/g-pellet): no (<0.2), slight (0.2–0.78), moderate (0.78–2.6), high (2.6–8.5), and extreme (>8.5) local pollution. The USA and neighboring countries were categorized as extreme (17–36 ng/g-pellet), western Europe and Japan were categorized as high (≤8.8), and most Asian and African countries were categorized as slight (<0.8). Notably, extreme or high pollution levels were also observed in countries with no history of PBDE production, such as Ghana (Σ6PBDEs up to 16 ng/g-pellet), the Philippines (7.5), and Hong Kong (7.7). Scrapped electrical and electronic waste might explain these anomalously high values.
著者
Kiwao KADOKAMI Takashi MIYAWAKI Katsumi IWABUCHI Sokichi TAKAGI Fumie ADACHI Haruka IIDA Kimiyo WATANABE Yuki KOSUGI Toshinari SUZUKI Shinichiro NAGAHORA Ruriko TAHARA Tomoaki ORIHARA Akifumi EGUCHI
出版者
Japan Society for Environmental Chemistry
雑誌
Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research (ISSN:24357685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.1-16, 2021 (Released:2021-03-05)
参考文献数
58
被引用文献数
1

With the increasing number and volume of chemicals used in modern life, their adverse effects on human health and aquatic organisms have increased concerns as well. To formulate appropriate management plans, the amounts/volumes used and emitted of these chemicals must be regulated. However, no data are available on the use of most chemicals, particularly daily-use chemicals such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Herein, we tested eight activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Japan, each servicing populations of over 200,000, to investigate the emissions of 484 chemicals including 162 PPCPs. Twenty-four-hour composite samples were collected before and after the activated sludge component of treatment in each season of 2017. Targeted substances were solid-phase extracted and subsequently measured by LC-QTOF-MS-Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Fragment-Ion Spectra Acquisition. The mean number of the detected substances and their mean total concentrations in inflows (n=32) and outflows (n=32) were 87 and 92 and 108,517 and 31,537 ng L−1, respectively. Pharmaceuticals comprised 50% of the screened chemicals in the inflow. The median removal efficiency was 31.3%: 29.2% for pharmaceuticals and 20.2% for pesticides, which were similar to those in the literature. Cluster analysis showed that spatial differences among the WWTPs are larger than seasonal differences in the same WWTP. Regardless, we detected seasonal differences in the amounts of substances in the inflows: the amounts of sucralose, UV-filters, and insecticides were larger in summer than in winter, whereas those of ibuprofen and chlorpheniramine were larger in winter than in summer. The total inflow and outflow population equivalent loads estimated using wastewater volume, detected concentrations, and populations were 44.7 and 13.0 g 1,000 capita−1 d−1, respectively. The extrapolated total annual Japan-wide inflow and outflow loads were 2,079 and 671 tons y−1, respectively. Using the data obtained in this study, we identified 13 candidates of marker substances for estimating real-time population in a sewage treatment area and 22 candidates of marker substances for sewage contamination.