著者
Rei YAMASHITA Nagako HIKI Fumika KASHIWADA Hideshige TAKADA Kaoruko MIZUKAWA Britta Denise HARDESTY Lauren ROMAN David HYRENBACH Peter G. RYAN Ben J. DILLEY Juan Pablo MUÑOZ-PÉREZ Carlos A. VALLE Christopher K. PHAM João FRIAS Bungo NISHIZAWA Akinori TAKAHASHI Jean-Baptiste THIEBOT Alexis WILL Nobuo KOKUBUN Yuuki Y. WATANABE Takashi YAMAMOTO Kozue SHIOMI Ui SHIMABUKURO Yutaka WATANUKI
出版者
Japan Society for Environmental Chemistry
雑誌
Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research (ISSN:24357685)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.1, pp.97-112, 2021 (Released:2021-10-11)
参考文献数
90

Plastic pollution, and its associated impacts on marine fauna due to chemical contamination, is an area of growing global concern. We analyzed 145 preen gland oil samples from 32 seabird species belonging to 8 families with different foraging habits and life history strategies from around the world for plastic additives and legacy persistent organic pollutants. The additives included two brominated flame retardants (decabromodiphenyl ether, BDE209; decabromo diphenyl ethane, DBDPE) and six benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs; UVP, UV326, UV329, UV328, UV327, and UV234). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites: DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexane: HCHs) were detected ubiquitously. High concentrations of PCBs (up to 20,000 ng/g-lipid) were observed in the seabirds from higher-trophic level taxa. These patterns can be attributed to PCB exposure via their diet and associated biomagnification. DDT concentrations showed strong positive correlations with PCB concentrations, suggesting that DDTs in seabirds are also a result of diet and biomagnification. Plastic additives were detected sporadically as BDE209 and DBDPE were detected in 16 seabirds from 10 species (range: 3–379 ng/g-lipid) and BUVSs were detected in 46% (67) of the examined individuals (range: 2–7,055 ng/g-lipid). UV stabilizers were more frequently detected than flame retardants because UV stabilizers are more widely applied to plastic products. None of the plastic additives were correlated to the presence of PCBs, nor were they explained by the foraging area or trophic level. High concentrations of additives were detected in the species with high levels of plastic in their digestive tracts. In some of these species, such as Hawaiian petrels (Pterodroma sandwichensis) from Hawaii and flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) from Western Australia, plastics were directly observed in the stomach. For other species, including great shearwaters (Ardenna gravis) from Gough Island, blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) from Marion Island, and black-footed and Laysan albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes and P. immutabilis) from Hawaii, plastic ingestion has been documented in literature. These patterns can be explained if the additives are mainly from ingested plastics rather than diet. The detection of BFRs and BUVSs demonstrated that a significant proportion of the examined seabirds accumulated chemicals from ingested plastics.
著者
片岡 龍峰 山本 和明 藤原 康徳 塩見 こずえ 國分 亙彦 Ryuho KATAOKA Kazuaki YAMAMOTO Yasunori FUJIWARA Kozue SHIOMI Nobuo KOKUBUN
出版者
総合研究大学院大学文化科学研究科 / 葉山町(神奈川県)
雑誌
総研大文化科学研究 = Sokendai review of cultural and social studies (ISSN:1883096X)
巻号頁・発行日
no.16, pp.17-29, 2020-03

日本最古の天文現象の記録は、『日本書紀』巻二十二、推古二十八年十二月一日(西暦六二〇年十二月三十日)の條に記される「十二月庚寅朔、天有赤気。長一丈餘。形似雉尾」という一節である。「赤気」は、彗星の類と理解され、日本古典文学や歴史学などの研究では悪い兆候を示すもの、といった理解がなされてきた。その一方、地球物理学においては、オーロラと理解され、オーロラの最も早い事例としてこの『日本書紀』が位置づけられてきた経緯がある。今回の考察では、「赤気」だけではなく、文中の「雉尾」という言葉にも着目し、『日本書紀』諸本での記述を踏まえたうえで、扇形をした赤いオーロラが日本などの中緯度で観察されやすく、真夜中より前に見られ、かつ雉の尾に似た形状をし、「長一丈」に該当する角距離十度相当で見えるという最も構造が際立った形態であるということを、雉の生態など、鳥類学の研究も踏まえて明らかにした。文献学的な考察に加え、雉の生態や尾羽の特徴を理解する鳥類学、彗星に関する古天文学の知識も合わせて新たな考察を加えたことによって、『日本書紀』の編纂に当たった人々の記述に対する責任感や知性、私たち日本人のルーツとなった倭の人々の観察眼や感性を伺い知るうえで一定の視点を与えることに寄与しうるものである。The oldest record of an astronomical phenomenon in Japan was recorded in the Nihon-shoki as follows: "On December 30 in 620, a red sign appeared in heaven. The length was more than 1 jo (10 degrees). The shape was similar to a pheasant tail (Suiko-Tennou, 28)". The appearance of a red sign has been recognized as an expression of a bad omen in literature, while it has been interpreted as the northern lights in geophysics. First we examine the description of the pheasant tail in detail. We then introduce the latest scientific findings that the northern lights show a fan-shaped appearance with a red background when appearing over Japan. After showing that the fan-shape is similar to a pheasant tail, also pointing out the low possibility of comets, we conclude that the oldest record of the red sign is consistent with the appearance of the northern lights over Japan. We hope that this examination contributes to increasing awareness of the sensitivity of Japanese people 1400-years-ago who compared a beautiful behavior of birds with a magnificent and rare natural phenomenon.