著者
酒向 貴子 川田 伸一郎 手塚 牧人 上杉 哲郎 明仁
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Series A, Zoology (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.63-75, 2008-06

The distribution of latrines of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, was examined from July 2006 to December 2007 in the Imperial Palace grounds, Tokyo, Japan. The raccoon dog is accustomed to defecate at fixed locations, forming holding latrines; thus the distribution of latrines is a good indicator of their abundance. The results suggest that the latrines are widely scattered in the study site, but are more dense in the Fukiage area, where an old-growth broad-leaved forest is established. The latrine sites are used more frequently from September to December, as the number of fresh feces increased in the autumnal season. To examine the seasonal food changes of the raccoon dogs, 10 pieces of feces from some latrines were collected every month and analyzed the indigestible contents in the sampled feces. The food items identified consisted of animal, plant and man-made materials, suggesting that the raccoon dogs were highly omnivorous. The animal materials found from the feces included mammals (4% of total feces), birds (37%), reptiles (2%), amphibians (3%), insects (95%), chilopods (56%), isopods (2%) and gastropods (12%). Invertebrates were the most abundand food item throughout the year. Three coleopteran families, the Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Scarabaeidae, accounted for a large proportion of the insects and they showed seasonal fluctuations. These suggest that the raccoon dogs fed on them as major animal food resources in the study site, and perhaps the seasonality is related to the temporal changes of availability of the insects. The majority of plant materials found in the feces was a variety of seeds, suggesting that the raccoon dogs fed on berries and fleshy fruits throughout the year. The occurrence of seeds decreased from March to April, which coincided with a low availability of fruits. The seeds found in feces were categorized into three types : (1) the short-term berry type including Prunus (Cerasus) spp., Moms spp., Rubus hirsutus and Machilus thunbergii, which occurred only a short term after their fruiting periods ; (2) the long-term berry type, including Celtis sinensis, Aphananthe aspera and Swida controversa, which occurred continuously for three or more months after the fruiting periods ; (3) the acorn type, including Castanopsis spp., Quercus spp. and Ginkgo biloba, which occurred in early spring (January to April) when the other fruits are scarce. The seasonal change of the three fruit types implies that the raccoon dogs consume the available fruits in relation to the successive fruiting periods. The proportion of artificial materials found in the feces was considerably lower than in previous studies carried out in the suburbs of Tokyo, suggesting that the raccoon dogs in the study site strongly depend on natural foods. Most of the natural food items were native to Japan since the past Edo period. Thus we conclude that the preservation of biodiversity in the Imperial Palace grounds was essential for the re-colonization by the raccoon dogs of the Tokyo metropolitan area after the 1970s.
著者
嶋津 武
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Series A, Zoology (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.1-30, 2007-03

Examination of digeneans (Trematoda) parasitizing freshwater fishes collected in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan, revealed that 22 species including two new species occur in this prefecture. Sanguinicola ugui sp. nov. (Sanguinicolidae) is described from the blood vessels of Tribolodon hakonensis (Gunther) (Cyprinidae). Azygia rhinogobii sp. nov. (Azygiidae) is described from the stomach of Rhinogobius sp. (Gobiidae, type host) and Gymnogobius urotaenia (Hilgendorf) (Gobiidae), and the intestine of T. hakonensis. Phyllodistomum anguilae Long and Wai, 1958, P. mogurndae Yamaguti, 1934, P. parasiluri Yamaguti, 1934 (Gorgoderidae), and Pseudexorchis major (Hasegawa, 1935) Yamaguti, 1938 (Heterophyidae) are redescribed. The generic diagnosis of the genus Pseudexorchis Yamaguti, 1938 is amended in part. New host and locality records are provided for 20 known species. An outline of the life cycle of Asymphylodora macrostoma Ozaki, 1925 (Lissorchiidae) is given. A furcocystocerous cercaria, probably the cercarial stage of A. rhinogobii sp. nov., is briefly described from Sinotaia quadrata histrica (Gould) (Gastropoda, Viviparidae).
著者
原 秀穂 篠原 明彦
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Series A, Zoology (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.77-94, 2008-06

The species-group of Arge aenea (Hymenoptera, Argidae) is proposed for three new species from East Asia : A. aenea sp. nov. from Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu), Russia (Khabarovskij Kraj and Primorskij Kraj), Korea and China (Shaanxi Province), A. tuberculata sp. nov. from China (Shaanxi Province) and A. fulvicauda sp. nov. from China (Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces). This species-group is characterized by the peculiar structure of the seventh and eighth abdominal terga of the males ; the seventh tergum has a small swelling posteromedially and the eighth tergum has a shallow and wide depression at middle. These character states are unique to the three species in the Argidae and support the monophyly of the species-group. Descriptions of the three new species are given. The larva of A. aenea sp. nov. is a leaf-feeder on Betula.