著者
酒向 貴子 川田 伸一郎 手塚 牧人 上杉 哲郎 明仁
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Series A, Zoology = 国立科学博物館研究報告. A類, 動物学 (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.63-75, 2008-06

The distribution of latrines of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, was examined from July 2006 to December 2007 in the Imperial Palace grounds, Tokyo, Japan. The raccoon dog is accustomed to defecate at fixed locations, forming holding latrines; thus the distribution of latrines is a good indicator of their abundance. The results suggest that the latrines are widely scattered in the study site, but are more dense in the Fukiage area, where an old-growth broad-leaved forest is established. The latrine sites are used more frequently from September to December, as the number of fresh feces increased in the autumnal season. To examine the seasonal food changes of the raccoon dogs, 10 pieces of feces from some latrines were collected every month and analyzed the indigestible contents in the sampled feces. The food items identified consisted of animal, plant and man-made materials, suggesting that the raccoon dogs were highly omnivorous. The animal materials found from the feces included mammals (4% of total feces), birds (37%), reptiles (2%), amphibians (3%), insects (95%), chilopods (56%), isopods (2%) and gastropods (12%). Invertebrates were the most abundand food item throughout the year. Three coleopteran families, the Carabidae, Staphylinidae and Scarabaeidae, accounted for a large proportion of the insects and they showed seasonal fluctuations. These suggest that the raccoon dogs fed on them as major animal food resources in the study site, and perhaps the seasonality is related to the temporal changes of availability of the insects. The majority of plant materials found in the feces was a variety of seeds, suggesting that the raccoon dogs fed on berries and fleshy fruits throughout the year. The occurrence of seeds decreased from March to April, which coincided with a low availability of fruits. The seeds found in feces were categorized into three types : (1) the short-term berry type including Prunus (Cerasus) spp., Moms spp., Rubus hirsutus and Machilus thunbergii, which occurred only a short term after their fruiting periods ; (2) the long-term berry type, including Celtis sinensis, Aphananthe aspera and Swida controversa, which occurred continuously for three or more months after the fruiting periods ; (3) the acorn type, including Castanopsis spp., Quercus spp. and Ginkgo biloba, which occurred in early spring (January to April) when the other fruits are scarce. The seasonal change of the three fruit types implies that the raccoon dogs consume the available fruits in relation to the successive fruiting periods. The proportion of artificial materials found in the feces was considerably lower than in previous studies carried out in the suburbs of Tokyo, suggesting that the raccoon dogs in the study site strongly depend on natural foods. Most of the natural food items were native to Japan since the past Edo period. Thus we conclude that the preservation of biodiversity in the Imperial Palace grounds was essential for the re-colonization by the raccoon dogs of the Tokyo metropolitan area after the 1970s.
著者
嶋津 武
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science. Series A, Zoology (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.1-30, 2007-03

Examination of digeneans (Trematoda) parasitizing freshwater fishes collected in Nagano Prefecture, central Japan, revealed that 22 species including two new species occur in this prefecture. Sanguinicola ugui sp. nov. (Sanguinicolidae) is described from the blood vessels of Tribolodon hakonensis (Gunther) (Cyprinidae). Azygia rhinogobii sp. nov. (Azygiidae) is described from the stomach of Rhinogobius sp. (Gobiidae, type host) and Gymnogobius urotaenia (Hilgendorf) (Gobiidae), and the intestine of T. hakonensis. Phyllodistomum anguilae Long and Wai, 1958, P. mogurndae Yamaguti, 1934, P. parasiluri Yamaguti, 1934 (Gorgoderidae), and Pseudexorchis major (Hasegawa, 1935) Yamaguti, 1938 (Heterophyidae) are redescribed. The generic diagnosis of the genus Pseudexorchis Yamaguti, 1938 is amended in part. New host and locality records are provided for 20 known species. An outline of the life cycle of Asymphylodora macrostoma Ozaki, 1925 (Lissorchiidae) is given. A furcocystocerous cercaria, probably the cercarial stage of A. rhinogobii sp. nov., is briefly described from Sinotaia quadrata histrica (Gould) (Gastropoda, Viviparidae).
著者
Takao Naitô
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.3, pp.119-138, 2022-08-22 (Released:2022-08-22)
参考文献数
30

A group of eyeless trechini ground beetles’ genera distributed in western Japan, the Rakantrechus Complex, is reviewed, and a key to this Complex and a key to its component genera are provided. A new species of the genus Nipponaphaenops S. Uéno, 1971, N. kojii sp. nov. is described under the new subgenus Tanakaphaenops subgen. nov. Additionally, new taxonomic treatment Rakantrechus (Iyotrechus) hisamatsui (S. Uéno et Naitô, 2009) comb. nov. is proposed. Keys to the subgenera of Rakantrechus and Nipponaphaenops are provided. Revised definition of the genus Nipponaphaenops is proposed.
著者
Hiroshi Namikawa Mariko Kawamura
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.4, pp.157-161, 2021-11-22 (Released:2021-11-22)
参考文献数
4

The polyps of Koellikerina bouilloni Kawamura and Kubota, 2005 were discovered growing on the shell of the gastropod Nassarius festivus (Powys, 1835) collected from Isozaki, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan. This hydrozoan species was so far known only from the medusae collected in Tanabe Bay, Wakayama, Japan (type locality) and Papua New Guinea. The discovery of the polyp and the rearing of the medusae permitted us to complement the description of this species.
著者
Kyoji Fujiwara Toshiyuki Suzuki Hiroyuki Motomura
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.229-233, 2022-11-22 (Released:2022-11-22)
参考文献数
8

A single specimen (14.9 mm in standard length) of Trimma panemorfum Winterbottom and Pyle, 2022, a species recently described on the basis of three specimens from deep coral reefs off Palau, was collected from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. A description of the Japanese specimen, the first Japanese record of T. panemorfum, is provided, and the new standard Japanese name “Kosumosu-benihaze” proposed for the species.
著者
川田 伸一郎 下稲葉 さやか 平田 逸俊
出版者
独立行政法人 国立科学博物館
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.97-118, 2022-05-20 (Released:2022-05-20)
参考文献数
62

Rokuro Nagasawa was a student in University of Tokyo under Professor Isao Ijima. He was involved in editing a zoological magazine named “Dobutsugaku Zasshi”, then the official journal of the Zoological Society of Tokyo, but his subsequent life is not well documented. We conducted bibliographic surveys to evaluate Nagasawa’s achievements. He entered the University of Tokyo in 1907 and was in charge of editing “Dobutsugaku Zasshi” from 1911 to 1917. After that, he suddenly disappeared from the Zoological Society of Tokyo and moved to Vancouver, where he worked as an editor-in-chief of Japanese newspapers. He wrote many newspaper articles under the pen name of “Nanbokusei”. Prior to moving to Canada, he also wrote under the pen name of “N.S. Sei”. He returned to Japan before World War II, and worked as a high school teacher in Kyoto. He then moved to Hyogo prefecture and wrote and edited the local history of the area.
著者
Masatsune Takeda Shane T. Ahyong Naoya Ohtsuchi Hironori Komatsu
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.147-191, 2022-11-22 (Released:2022-11-22)
参考文献数
165

The crabs collected by the RV Hakuhō Maru (KH-72-1 cruise) in the South China Sea are recorded as the fourth part following the previous three parts of the series (Sulu Sea and Sibutu Passage, Timor Sea, and Sahul Shelf). They are mostly shallow water inhabitants, representing 35 species of 31 genera in 13 families, with two new species of the family Epialtidae, Naxioides elongatus sp. nov. and Samadinia hakuhoae sp. nov. Taxonomic comments are given for each species. In this fourth and final part, biogeographic notes on all the species collected by RV Hakuhō Maru (KH-72-1 cruise) are briefly summarized, together with a list of the crabs collected by the RV Hakuhō Maru (KH-73-2 cruise) in the South China Sea.
著者
Hiroshi Namikawa
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.1-4, 2022-02-22 (Released:2022-02-22)
参考文献数
9

In addition to polyps of the anthoathecate hydroid Koellikerina bouilloni previously reported exclusively on old, eroded shells of live gastropods (Nassarius festivus) in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, the polyps of three additional epizoic anthoathecate hydroid species (Dicoryne conybearei, Stylactaria misakiensis and Leuckartiara sp.) were found on similar condition N. festivus shells in different localities in Japan. Because polyps of these hydroid species were not found on fresh shells, it is suggested that N. festivus could avoid colonization by the hydroids whilst occupying fresh shells, but not older eroded ones, the latter therefore providing a suitable substrate for the hydroid polyps.
著者
Akihiko Shinohara Akihiko Watanabe
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.1, pp.25-27, 2022-02-22 (Released:2022-02-22)
参考文献数
5

A collection record of Cephalcia antennata Shinohara, 1994, from Ochiai-toge, Tokushima Prefecture, Shikoku, is given. This is the second specimen of the species ever known and represents the first distribution record from Shikoku. Corrections are made to the description and key by Shinohara (1994, 2020).
著者
Hideho Hara Shinichi Ibuki Akihiko Shinohara
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.4, pp.163-188, 2021-11-22 (Released:2021-11-22)
参考文献数
76

Two larch sawflies, Euura imperfecta (Zaddach, 1876) and E. itoi (Okutani, 1955) (Tenthredinidae), are redescribed. New distribution records are: Arge similis (Snellen van Vollenhoven, 1860) (Argidae) from Amami-Oshima Island and Phylloecus etorofensis (Takeuchi, 1955) (Cephidae), Apareophora nebuta Togashi, 1964, Ardis pallipes (Serville, 1823), Eriocampopsis subtruncata Takeuchi, 1952, Eutomostethus pumicosus Seiyama, 1981, Stethomostus babai Togashi, 1984 and Tomostethus nigritus (Fabricius, 1804) (Tenthredinidae) from Hokkaido. Information on the distribution of Phymatocera nipponica Togashi, 1958 (Tenthredinidae) is given. New host records are Rosa multiflora Thunb. (Rosaceae) for Sterictiphora nipponica Takeuchi, 1939 (Argidae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae) and Juglans mandshurica Maxim. var. sachalinensis (Komatsu) Kitam. (Juglandaceae) for Tremex apicalis Matsumura, 1912 (Siricidae), Actinidia polygama (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch. ex Maxim. (Actinidiaceae), Symplocarpus renifolius Schott ex Tzvelev. (Araceae) and Impatiens textorii Miq. (Balsaminaceae) for Aglaostigma albicinctum (Takeuchi, 1953) (Tenthredinidae), Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosaceae) for Allantus meridionalis (Takeuchi, 1933) (Tenthredinidae), Quercus serrata Murray (Fagaceae) for Apethymus kunugi Togashi, 2005 (Tenthredinidae), Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosaceae) for Corymbas nipponica Takeuchi, 1936 (Tenthredinidae), Alnus hirsuta (Spach) Turcz. ex Rupr. var. hirsuta (Betulaceae) for Masaakia longivaginata Takeuchi, 1950 (Tenthredinidae), Rubus hirsutus Thunb. (Rosaceae) for Metallus albipes (Cameron, 1875) (Tenthredinidae), Rubus microphyllus L.f. (Rosaceae) for Metallus pumilus (Klug, 1816) (Tenthredinidae), Rubus parvifolius L. (Rosaceae) for Monophadnoides montanus Togashi, 1980 (Tenthredinidae) and Corylus sieboldiana Blume var. sieboldiana (Betulaceae) for Pristiphora fulviceps Takeuchi, 1933 (Tenthredinidae), Actinidia polygama (Siebold et Zucc.) Planch. ex Maxim. (Actinidiaceae) and Glechoma hederacea L. subsp. grandis (A. Gray) H. Hara (Lamiaceae) for Siobla ferox (Smith, 1874) (Tenthredinidae), Impatiens textorii Miq. (Balsaminaceae) and Circaea mollis Siebold et Zucc. (Onagraceae) for Siobla japonica Shinohara, Wei & Niu, 2013 (Tenthredinidae) and Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. var. japonica (Miq.) Nakai (Rosaceae) for Taxonus shinoharai Togashi, 2009 (Tenthredinidae). Information on the host plants of Strongylogaster moiwana Matsumura, 1912 (Tenthredinidae) is given. The larvae of Sterictiphora nipponica, Aglaostigma albicinctum, Allantus meridionalis, Apethymus kunugi, Corymbas nipponica, Masaakia longivaginata, Monophadnoides montanus, Siobla ferox, Siobla japonica, Strongylogaster moiwana and Taxonus shinoharai are briefly described and their color photographs are given for the first time.
著者
Hidehiko Saito Tadasu K. Yamada Yuko Tajima
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.3, pp.135-155, 2021-08-20 (Released:2021-08-20)
参考文献数
59

The right forelimb of a western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) was dissected with particular attention to the motor function of fingers of this species. The anatomical structure of the forearm and hand of our specimen of gorilla is not much different from that of the human. The palmar aponeurosis is absent. Ligamentous fibers, instead, extend to the palm from the flexor retinaculum to form the ligamentous septa along the flexor tendons. The short thumb seems to be carefully calculated to fulfill both roles of locomotion and feeding. The underdeveloped flexor pollicis longus muscle bifurcates from the flexor digitorum profundus muscle of the index finger. The extensor indicis is also underdeveloped; its tendon does not reach the index finger but attaches to the wrist. The extensor apparatus of the fingers composed of both the extrinsic and intrinsic systems is as well developed as in the human hand. During knuckle walking with the metacarpophalangeal joints in extension and the proximal interphalangeal joints in deep flexion, the former joint of each finger seems to be stabilized with integrated functions of the finger extensor, interosseous and lumbrical muscles, and sagittal bands as well as the groove at the metacarpal head. The ulnar antebrachial branch of the median nerve with a fine motor communicating branch from the ulnar nerve innervates the ulnar intrinsic muscles of the hand, which are innervated by the deep branch of the ulnar nerve in the human.
著者
Akihiko Shinohara David R. Smith
出版者
National Museum of Nature and Sciece
雑誌
国立科学博物館研究報告A類(動物学) (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.1, pp.1-5, 2021-02-22 (Released:2021-02-22)
参考文献数
14

A xiphydriid woodwasp, Indoxiphia prima Smith, 2019, previously known only from Taiwan, is newly recorded from Ashizuri-misaki (Shikoku), Nakanoshima Island (Tokara Islands) and Amami-oshima Island, southern Japan. Its taxonomic characters are summarized, and the species is compared with some other Japanese xiphydriids. This is one of a few xiphydriid species showing a peculiar distribution pattern confined to southeastern coastal areas in Japan. This distribution pattern may have been formed at least partly as a result of dispersal by marine drift.
著者
原 秀穂 篠原 明彦
出版者
国立科学博物館
雑誌
Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science Series A Zoology (ISSN:18819052)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.77-94, 2008-06

The species-group of Arge aenea (Hymenoptera, Argidae) is proposed for three new species from East Asia : A. aenea sp. nov. from Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu), Russia (Khabarovskij Kraj and Primorskij Kraj), Korea and China (Shaanxi Province), A. tuberculata sp. nov. from China (Shaanxi Province) and A. fulvicauda sp. nov. from China (Shaanxi and Sichuan Provinces). This species-group is characterized by the peculiar structure of the seventh and eighth abdominal terga of the males ; the seventh tergum has a small swelling posteromedially and the eighth tergum has a shallow and wide depression at middle. These character states are unique to the three species in the Argidae and support the monophyly of the species-group. Descriptions of the three new species are given. The larva of A. aenea sp. nov. is a leaf-feeder on Betula.