著者
勝田 至
出版者
国立歴史民俗博物館
雑誌
国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 (ISSN:02867400)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.174, pp.7-30, 2012-03

近代の民俗資料に登場する火車は妖怪の一種で、野辺送りの空に現れて死体をさらう怪物である。正体が猫とされることも多く、貧乏寺を繁昌させるため寺の飼い猫が和尚と組んで一芝居打つ「猫檀家」の昔話も各地に伝わっている。火車はもともと仏教で悪人を地獄に連れて行くとされる車であったが、妖怪としての火車(カシャ)には仏教色が薄く、また奪われる死体は必ずしも悪人とされない。本稿の前半では仏教の火車と妖怪の火車との繋がりを中世史料を用いて明らかにした。室町時代に臨終の火車が「外部化」して雷雨が堕地獄の表象とされるようになり、十六世紀後半には雷が死体をさらうという話が出現する。それとともに戦国末には禅宗の僧が火車を退治する話も流布し始めた。葬列の際の雷雨を人々が気にするのは、中世後期に上層の華美な葬列が多くの見物人を集めるようになったことと関係がある。猫が火車とされるようになるのは十七世紀末のころと見られる。近世には猫だけではなく、狸や天狗、魍魎などが火車の正体とされる話もあり、仏教から離れて独自の妖怪として歩み始める。悪人の臨終に現れる伝統的な火車の説話も近世まで続いているが、死体をさらう妖怪の火車の話では、死者は悪人とされないことが多くなった。人を地獄に連れて行く火車の性格が残っている場合、火車に取られたという噂がその死者の評判にかかわるという問題などから、次第に獄卒的な性格を薄めていったと考えられる。Kasha, which emerges in modern folklore, is a kind of monster which appears in the sky over funeral processions and carries away the dead. The monster is often identified as a cat, and "nekodanka," which is an old tale of a cat playing tricks together with the priest of a poor temple to make the temple prosper, is also known in various places.Kasha was originally a Buddhist carrier that allegedly took villains to hell. However, when kasha is portrayed as a monster, its Buddhist character is weakened, and the dead taken by kasha are not necessarily villains. The first half of this article clarifies the connection between kasha in Buddhism and kasha as a monster, using medieval materials. During the Muromachi period, kasha for the death was "externalized," and thunderstorms were considered to represent going to hell, while in the last half of the 16th century, the story of thunder carrying away the dead appeared. At the same time, at the end of the Sengoku period, the story of a Zen Buddhist monk defeating kasha gained ground. People's concerns about thunderstorms at funeral processions are connected with the fact that in the last half of the Middle Ages, gorgeous funeral processions of the upper classes attracted many spectators.It seems that kasha were first identified as cats in the late 17th century. In early modern times, kasha were also identified as raccoon dogs, tengu, moryo, etc., leaving Buddhism and beginning to walk alone as unique monsters. The traditional story of kasha, which appears at the death of a villain, was continued until early modern times, but in the story of kasha as a monster carrying away the dead, the dead was often not villains. If kasha still had the character of a monster which carries away people to hell, the rumor that kasha took the dead might have tarnished the reputation of the latter. For this reason, the character of kasha as a tormenting devil in hell would have gradually been weakened.

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火車の誕生 https://t.co/nO7HWRiKij
この前の「火車の誕生」の論文で「二桝をつかひて」とか「二舛ヲ用者」は面白いと思った。 「米を買うとき大きな枡で買い、売るときは小さな枡で売る不正」のことだそうだ。 https://t.co/xDq5lsUNCA
「火車の誕生 (兆・応・禁・呪の民俗誌)Birth of Kasha」(勝田 至) https://t.co/xDq5lsUNCA
火車の誕生 https://t.co/nO7HWRiKij
火車の誕生 https://t.co/nO7HWRiKij
火車の誕生 https://t.co/nO7HWRiKij
火車の誕生 https://t.co/nO7HWRiKij
火車の誕生 https://t.co/nO7HWRiKij
火車の誕生 https://t.co/nO7HWRiKij
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