- 国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History (ISSN:02867400)
- vol.182, pp.147-165, 2014-01
上野国桐生下広沢村の彦部家の足利将軍家旧臣活動の分析を通じて、近世の身分制における由緒の機能を明らかにし、旧臣活動の背景にある社会運動を浮かび上がらせる。彦部家は同村の有力百姓で、村役人に任じられていた。しかし高階姓で、室町・戦国期には、足利将軍家の近習の武士として京都で活動し、戦国末期に同村へ土着したと伝える。戦国期、同地へ土着するに際し、戦国大名由良氏より広沢郷内に千疋を宛行われたという領主としての由緒、関ヶ原の合戦で旗絹・旗竿を献上したという桐生領五四ヶ村の由緒は、それぞれ村支配、絹織物産業を支える理論として機能した。いわゆる「家の由緒」「村の由緒」である。これに対して足利将軍家の旧臣として会津藩士坂本家と交流した活動は、その目的が必ずしも明確ではない。坂本家は足利義昭の曾孫で牢人であった義邵が、神道学・軍学・有職故実に通じて会津藩主保科正容に求められて同藩に仕官した。足利鑁阿寺がこの坂本家と、彦部家を仲介し旧臣関係が構築され、それにより御目見・御見舞・裃や感状の下賜・一字拝領といった恩賞給付がなされた。そもそも彦部家は、京都西陣から高度な織物の技術を導入し、また文芸の面では、江戸の国学者を桐生へ招き、また出府して中央の文化を吸収し、桐生国学を興隆させるなど、中央の文明・文化を積極的に導入・吸収することにより家の繁栄をもたらしてきたのである。坂本家との旧臣活動もまた、同家に蓄積されていた先進的で高度な文化に触れ、それに倣ってゆくことが一つの目的であったと考えられる。幕末期、彦部家は嫡子を幕臣とし、武家へ養子に入れており、同家が身分の上昇に執心していたことは明らかであるが、これを単に、幕藩体制での身分秩序を下支えするものと理解することは正しくない。武家による政治・経済・文化の一元的な独占体制への抵抗であり、独占されていたそれらを獲得してゆくという積極的な面を評価すべきである。こうした動向は、幕府支配体制の相対化という意味で、草莽運動と質的な共通性を見出すことができ、また彦部家のみならず東関東で広く確認される社会的動向といえる。Through an analysis of the activities of a former retainer of the Ashikaga Shogunate, the Hikobe family of Shimo-Hirosawa Village, Kiryu, Kozuke Province, this paper clarifies the importance of a family history in the early-modern class system, and brings to the fore a social movement that lay behind this former retainer family's activities.The Hikobe family were prominent and influential farmers in Shimo-Hirosawa village, and were appointed as village officials. According to legend, however, in the Muromachi and Warring States period, the family under the surname of Takashina served in Kyoto as attendants of the Ashikaga Shogunate family, and at the end of the Warring States period, the family settled in Shimo-Hirosawa village. The family history as feudal lords shows that in the Warring States period, they were granted the Senbiki area within the Hirosawa Village by the Yura warlord clan. In addition, the historical records of 54 villages in the Kiryu domain state that for the Battle of Sekigahara, the family presented flag silks and flagstaffs. These records are a so-called "family history" and "village history," and supported their right to rule the village, and control the silk textile industry. On the other hand, as a former retainer of the Ashikaga Shogunate family, the purpose of their fraternization with the Sakamoto family, who were Aizu domain retainers, is not exactly clear. With regard to the Sakamoto family, Yoshiaki, a wandering samurai and a great-grandchild of Yoshiaki Ashikaga, was finally accepted into government service in the Aizu domain. He was appointed by Masakata Hoshina, the lord of the domain, because of his good knowledge of Shinto studies, military science and tactics, and studies in ancient court and military practices and usage. Ashikaga Bannaji Temple acted as an intermediary between the Sakamoto family and the Hikobe family to establish a former retainer relationship, resulting in the granting of the following rewards: omemie ( privilege of having an audience with the shogun) , omimai ( visiting rights) , grant of kamishimo ( Edo-period ceremonial dress of the warrior class) and a letter of approval, and ichiji hairyo (receiving one character from their lord's personal name to be incorporated in their name) . Originally, the Hikobe family introduced advanced textile techniques and skills from Nishijin in Kyoto, and in the field of literary art, they invited scholars of the Japanese classics from Edo to Kiryu, and visited the capital to absorb its culture and to encourage the flourishing of the Japanese classics in Kiryu; they actively absorbed and introduced the civilization and culture of the capital and thus brought prosperity to the family. It can be considered that as a former retainer, one of the purposes for the Hikobe's activities with the Sakamoto family was to make contact with and follow their go-ahead and advanced culture. In the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate, the heir of the Hikobe family became a vassal of the shogun, and also the heir of a samurai family. It is apparent that the family was devoted to improving their status in society; however, it is not correct if this is understood as simply providing support for the class system encouraged under the Shogunate administration. In fact, it was actually a form of resistance to the centralized exclusive system of politics, economy, and culture maintained by the samurai families, and it should be acknowledged that it was a positive aspect of this class trying to gain more control of these monopolized areas. For such trends, a qualitative commonness with the commoner movement can be found in the sense of relativization of the ruling system by the Shogunate, and it is also a social trend broadly confirmed in the East Kanto region as well as by the Hikobe family.