著者
大橋 照枝 Terue Ohashi
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤経済研究 = Reitaku International Journal of Economic Studies (ISSN:09196706)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.19-49, 2009-09-30

Sustainable welfare indicator HSM (Human Satisfaction Measure) including Triple bottom line (Society, Environment and Economy) was proposed by Ohashi in 2000 and developed from Ver. 1, Ver. 2-(1), Ver. 2-(2), Ver. 3-(1), Ver. 3-(2), Ver. 4, Ver. 5 with help of Dr. Hong Nguyen and Professor Nobuyuki Kimata.For the further development of HSM, Ohashi tried to introduce weighting research of 6 categories (Labor, Health, Education, Gender, Environment and Income) using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process ) Method, conducted in Japan ( 2007 ), and Sweden ( 2008 ), named "Questionnaire on Ideal Society PartI".In the questionnaire Ohashi included one open-ended question " What is your Ideal Society?".Using the text mining software named True Teller of Nomura Research Institute, analyzing the open-ended answers of both countries to "words mapping", Ohashi found the interesting results. The keywords mutually found in both countries are " environmental consciousness" and "stability of life". The keywords appeared only in Japan is "no social gap" and only in Sweden "democracy", "equality" and "education".Democracy was considered as key factor of social sustainability from 19th century in Sweden.HSM is composed by triple bottom line : Society, environment and economy, as indispensable factor for social sustainability.But democracy is also important as healthy society.So, Ohashi conducted the research named "Questionnaire on Ideal Society Part II" in Sweden and Japan in May 2009.In the research , Ohashi included one open-ended question, "What kinds of aspects of Sweden do you like most?" in Swedish research, and "What kinds of aspects of Japan do you like most" in Japanese questionnaire.Analyzing the answer using True Teller as word mapping, the keywords appeared in both countries are quite different.In Sweden, "Democracy", "Freedom of speech" and "Equality" are the keywords of most favorite aspects of their country. In Japan, "Nature", "Environment", "The national character","Peace", and "Culture" are the aspects Japanese like most about their country.Swedish respondents love the foundation of country people depend upon, but Japanese love the aspect of software of their country and they don't aware the foundation through which they can enjoy peace, culture and so on.In Sweden, Social Democratic Party is established in 1889 as the first political party and it was the main party governing most of the political history and contributed forming the democratic and welfare society of Sweden.Japan, on the other hand, got democracy after the defeat of World War II with the help of GHQ (General Headquarters). Thus, Japanese have almost no history to endeavor to make democracy by their own.So there is some delay in democratic thinking in Japan comparing with Sweden, and it makes unhappy phenomena in Japanese society.Such findings Ohashi got the results of this research.Through the research, Ohashi concludes that in order to increase the HSM value of Japan,the key is to raise the consciousness of democracy in Japan.
著者
大橋 照枝
出版者
麗澤大学
雑誌
麗澤経済研究 (ISSN:09196706)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.29-53, 2011-03-10

I The defects of GDP GDP:Gross Domestic Product adds as economic effects the expense of retrieval of environmental damage,traffic or auto accidents or even the cost of family breakdown which are inconsistent the welfare and happiness of people. On the contrary the women's housekeeping work that's indispensable for people's welfare but no payment is not counted to GDP.So,GDP was criticized by many people for the long time.First criticizer of GDP was Simon Kuznets(1901-1985).He was himself the developer of GNP:Gross National Product.In 1930s the Commerce Department of USA asked a young economist Mr.Simon Kuznets,to develop a uniform set of national accounts.He developed GNP in1932.Thse became the prototype for what we now call the GDP.But Kuznets knew well GNP is not the indicator of welfare.So he reported to Congress in 1934 and warned that GNP is not the indicator of welfare.In 1960s to 1970s, many people (politician, philosopher,sociologist and social reformer) criticized GDP. They are R.F.Kennedy(1968),Baudrillard(1970),Daniel Bell (1973),Hazel Henderson(1978),and Ralph Nader(1978)and so on. II Beyond GDP Recently,the movement of Beyond GDP occurred.And the Beyond GDP conference was held in 19&20 November 2007 in Brussels,organized by the European Commission,European Parliament,Club of Rome,OECD and WWF.They discussed the defects of GDP,but contents remained unchanged as the discussion in 60es and 70es. In 2008,French president Nicolas Sarkozy organized Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress(CMEPSP).CMEPSP was chaired by Professor Joseph E. Stiglitz,Columbia University,Professor Amartya Sen,Harvard University. Chair Adviser,and Professor Jean-Paul Fitoussi,Institut d' Etudes Politiques de Paris.Coodinator.And 21 other famous Economists in the world were the members.The report of CMEPSP was published in September 2009,But. it was not a single metric indicator taking the place of GDP. Stiglitz preferred a Dashboard more than a Single Metric. III Indicators Complementing and modifying GDP I)MEW:Measures of Economic Welfare Nordhaus,W.and Tobin,J.,1972, "Is Growth Obsolete?",Economic Growth,National Bureau of Economic Reserch,pp.1-80 II)NNW:Net National Welfare Keizaishingikai NNW Kaihatsuiinkai,1973, "Atarashii Fukushishihyo NNW",Japan. III)ISEW/GPI:Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare/Genuine Progress Indicator ・Herman E. Daly and John B. Cobb, Jr,1989,1994,for the common good,Beacon Press.・Redefining Progress,1999 ,the Genuine Progress Indecator.IV)SEEA :Handbook of National Accounting:Integlated System of Environmental and Economic Accounting United Nations 2004,Handbook of National Accounting :Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting,2003,Final draft Circulated for Information Prior to Official Editing V)HDI:Human Development Index Published every year from 1990 by UNDP. VI)HPI:Happy Planet Index Published by the New Economics Foundation U.K.,in 2006,2009. VII)HSM:Human Satisfaction Measure Terue Ohashi,2010,Democracy as the Indicator of Sustainability-From the research of "Questionnaire on Ideal Society Part2"in Japan and Sweden-,Reitaku International Journal of Economic Studies Vol.18,No.1,March 2010,pp.9-33 IV Conclusion Almost all indicators,complementing GDP do not deny the presence of GDP,even the Stigritz report.
著者
大橋 照枝
出版者
麗澤大学
雑誌
麗澤経済研究 (ISSN:09196706)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.19-34, 2007-09

The HSM was advocated by Ohashi in 2000, and then in 2005 a joint researcher Dr. Hong X. Nguyen joined the effort to develop the indicator, until Ver. 3. This paper deals with the "Human Satisfaction Measure (HSM), a sustainable social welfare indicator. The paper covers the following elements: (1) Examining two papers (Easterlin, 2003 and Vemuri/Costanza, 2006) that have been advocated as the nature of happiness or a measure of satisfaction; (2) Suggesting that it is indispensable to incorporate the "sustainable development or sustainability" as a indicator of satisfaction or happiness; (3) Demonstrating the superiority of the HSM through the comparison among seven international indicators including the HSM in terms of the "sustainable development" or sustainability; (4) Reviewing the versions 3-(1) and (2) of HSM using "distance to target (DtT) method, developed in 2005, and referring to the ambiguity of sustainability in Japan that the version 3-(2), in particular, indicates; and (5) Aiming at the upgrade of a weighted research using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method so as to put the version 3 of the HSM into practical use as an indicator for policy planning.