著者
大橋 照枝 Terue Ohashi
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤経済研究 = Reitaku International Journal of Economic Studies (ISSN:09196706)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.17, no.2, pp.19-49, 2009-09-30

Sustainable welfare indicator HSM (Human Satisfaction Measure) including Triple bottom line (Society, Environment and Economy) was proposed by Ohashi in 2000 and developed from Ver. 1, Ver. 2-(1), Ver. 2-(2), Ver. 3-(1), Ver. 3-(2), Ver. 4, Ver. 5 with help of Dr. Hong Nguyen and Professor Nobuyuki Kimata.For the further development of HSM, Ohashi tried to introduce weighting research of 6 categories (Labor, Health, Education, Gender, Environment and Income) using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process ) Method, conducted in Japan ( 2007 ), and Sweden ( 2008 ), named "Questionnaire on Ideal Society PartI".In the questionnaire Ohashi included one open-ended question " What is your Ideal Society?".Using the text mining software named True Teller of Nomura Research Institute, analyzing the open-ended answers of both countries to "words mapping", Ohashi found the interesting results. The keywords mutually found in both countries are " environmental consciousness" and "stability of life". The keywords appeared only in Japan is "no social gap" and only in Sweden "democracy", "equality" and "education".Democracy was considered as key factor of social sustainability from 19th century in Sweden.HSM is composed by triple bottom line : Society, environment and economy, as indispensable factor for social sustainability.But democracy is also important as healthy society.So, Ohashi conducted the research named "Questionnaire on Ideal Society Part II" in Sweden and Japan in May 2009.In the research , Ohashi included one open-ended question, "What kinds of aspects of Sweden do you like most?" in Swedish research, and "What kinds of aspects of Japan do you like most" in Japanese questionnaire.Analyzing the answer using True Teller as word mapping, the keywords appeared in both countries are quite different.In Sweden, "Democracy", "Freedom of speech" and "Equality" are the keywords of most favorite aspects of their country. In Japan, "Nature", "Environment", "The national character","Peace", and "Culture" are the aspects Japanese like most about their country.Swedish respondents love the foundation of country people depend upon, but Japanese love the aspect of software of their country and they don't aware the foundation through which they can enjoy peace, culture and so on.In Sweden, Social Democratic Party is established in 1889 as the first political party and it was the main party governing most of the political history and contributed forming the democratic and welfare society of Sweden.Japan, on the other hand, got democracy after the defeat of World War II with the help of GHQ (General Headquarters). Thus, Japanese have almost no history to endeavor to make democracy by their own.So there is some delay in democratic thinking in Japan comparing with Sweden, and it makes unhappy phenomena in Japanese society.Such findings Ohashi got the results of this research.Through the research, Ohashi concludes that in order to increase the HSM value of Japan,the key is to raise the consciousness of democracy in Japan.
著者
嘉手苅 徹 豊嶋 建広 井下 佳織 Toru Kadekaru Tatehiro Toyoshima Kaori Inoshita
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.69-80, 2017-03-10

The aim of this paper is to investigate how唐手(Toudi) was evaluated in society between 1879, when Okinawa Prefecture was established, and 1905 when Toudi was initially adopted as part of the gymnastics program at junior high schools in Okinawa. This attempt to clarify some aspects of Toudi after the Ryukyu Annexation is based on research using materials such as articles in Ryukyu Shinpo, the local newspaper, and educational magazines of that time. An examination of such documents reveals that the era was an important turning point for “Toudi” on its journey to becoming “Karate,” which is still written using the same characters, 唐手. Karate was, on one hand, condemned as “ one of the customsthat should be refined” under the assimilation educational policy of the Meiji Government. On the other hand, it was widely practised at local annual events and welcome parties for military personnel. Karate also found a place in school activities like farewell parties or sports meets of the Okinawa Prefecture Normal School.
著者
嘉手苅 徹 豊嶋 建広 井下 佳織 Toru Kadekaru Tatehiro Toyoshima Kaori Inoshita
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.69-80, 2017-03-10

The aim of this paper is to investigate how唐手(Toudi) was evaluated in society between 1879, when Okinawa Prefecture was established, and 1905 when Toudi was initially adopted as part of the gymnastics program at junior high schools in Okinawa. This attempt to clarify some aspects of Toudi after the Ryukyu Annexation is based on research using materials such as articles in Ryukyu Shinpo, the local newspaper, and educational magazines of that time. An examination of such documents reveals that the era was an important turning point for "Toudi" on its journey to becoming "Karate," which is still written using the same characters, 唐手. Karate was, on one hand, condemned as " one of the customsthat should be refined" under the assimilation educational policy of the Meiji Government. On the other hand, it was widely practised at local annual events and welcome parties for military personnel. Karate also found a place in school activities like farewell parties or sports meets of the Okinawa Prefecture Normal School.
著者
伊藤 哲 Satoshi Ito
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.165-175, 2015-03-20

I intend to insist that both Keynes and Smith considered the common respect of Economics as one of Social Science. Keynes stated that Economics was one of Moral Science, as Smith pointed out the difference between Moral philosophy and Natural philosophy. However, Hume emphasized Moral philosophy should adopted Newton's experimental method in the analysis of human nature. Keynes doubted whether human acts were based on Mathematical expectation, and indicated the instability due to the characteristic of human nature. Equally Smith submitted that the casuists made mistakes their end for the rules of justice. Criticizing Casuistry, Keynes and Smith recognized that Economics connoted the insecurity of human nature which created social dynamics.
著者
Yusoff Irma Yazreen Md. Lau Sim Yee Irma Yazreen Md. Yusoff Sim Yee Lau
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.107-126, 2016-03-10

This study formulates a CSR index―which is a multi-dimensional metric―for assessing the performance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) of the Top100 PLCs in market capitalization in the Bursa Malaysia. Data on financial performances of these companies in 2012 were sourced from Thompson DataStream whilst other CSR related components were taken from each company's annual report and sustainability report that are available in public domain. CSR index of each Top 100 PLCs was computed by unweighted and weighted methods. This result shows that Public Bank is strongly balanced in profit generation and CSR contribution. The findings also show the rankings of some PLCs have improved when CSR activities with the assigned weightage are incorporated as moderators for evaluating CSR performances. The opposite results were also evident from the analysis. More importantly, the results suggest that with an appropriate system of metrics in quantifying CSR performances, a corporation could certainly achieve a better standing in the society not merely due to a better financial performance but because of its strive to becoming a more responsible corporate citizen in enhancing social wellbeing beyond the acts of paying taxes, employment generation and maximization of shareholders wealth. Hence CSR activities should not be viewed as a means for improving public and investment relations but they ought to be included as an integral part of the corporate's role in the society.
著者
近江 啓太 Keita Omi
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.25, pp.95-99, 2017-03-10

This article reviews, “ Politics and Strategy: Partisan Ambition and American Statecraft” by Peter Trubowitz, published in 2011 from Princeton University Press, introducing to potential readers some theoretical and methodological strengths and weaknesses of the book. For scholars and experts, especially on U. S. foreign policy issues, the book pushes the boundaries of traditional understanding of country’s grand strategy typology and it rekindles structural incentives arguments of both domestic and international politics by reconstructing the conventional knowledge of international relations. For the general public, the book takes readers on a brief excursion into what scientific research is and how social science research is being conducted in exploring politics.
著者
川久保 剛 Tsuyoshi Kawakubo
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:09196714)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.2, pp.1-36, 2008-09-30

This article examines the thought of Tsuneari Fukuda both before and during World War II. It focuses on his ideas regarding ethics of the common man, and it is an attempt to clarify the place and meaning of Fukuda's thought within the history of ideas.
著者
川久保 剛 Tsuyoshi Kawakubo
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:09196714)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.1-14, 2011-03-10

This article examines what Tsuneari Fukuda was interested in in his youth,especially in his primary, lower secondary and high school time according to his new materials.Fukuda got a liberal education - what is called a Taishou liberal education- during his primary and lower secondary schools. In his high-school time, student movements were prevalent among his generation. However, Fukuda was not involved in those movements because his primary concern was drama. At that time, although leftist dramas were very popular, he was not interested in them. Rather, he was interested in dramas of art for arts sake. From this perspective,he sympathized with the theatrical company, Tsukijiza.Mr. Fukuda was also interested in literary criticism at that time. The prominent critic, Hideo Kobayashi's anthology of literary criticism brought Fukuda into this arena.
著者
中畑 邦夫 Kunio Nakahata
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗沢学際ジャーナル (ISSN:09196714)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.2, pp.75-86, 2011

In this article,I try to interpret Sakaguchi Ango's criticism of the Imperial System from the view point of R. Girard's theory of the system of Sacrifice. I emphasize that in Darakuron and Zoku Darakuron at least, Ango criticized the Imperial System and the Japanese nation that supported it, not the Emperor himself. I think he makes virtually no reference to the Emperor himself. Girard's theory helps us to understand that the Imperial System and the system of sacrifice have an important point in common on the one hand.and to appreciate the uniqueness of the Imperial System on the other hand.
著者
Yamashita Miki Miki Yamashita
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.24, pp.93-105, 2016-03-10

This qualitative study explores the effectiveness of an active learning project for a group of two male and four female Japanese students in my seminar course in the economics department of a small liberal arts college in suburban Tokyo, Japan.The students created and implemented a project called the Human Library (HL), designed to improve their generic skills, especially the relational ones essential to collaborative and healthy human relationships.The importance of active learning and mentoring to the project are described, and an account of the main HL event is provided.Relational cultural theory is then used to evaluate the project’s impact on the students’ generic skills.It is concluded that its effects were generally positive, but that improvements to the project and to the data collection about it are possible and desirable.
著者
中畑 邦夫 Kunio Nakahata
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤学際ジャーナル = Reitaku Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (ISSN:21895333)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.23, pp.115-130, 2015-03-20

In this article, I deal with unique arguments on the masses in Ango Sakaguchi’s works which was written mainly after the Pacific War, and try to show its significance.To understand Ango’s arguments on the masses, it is necessary to comprehend his concept of Karakuri. Karakuri means systems, which involve not only ‘visible systems’ such as political systems or legislative systems, but also ‘invisible systems’ such as morals, manners and customs of communities, and even habits in personal life. Karakuris are established based on human nature, or on the fact that as long as humans live, they have will to live, and to live better, and in Ango’s works, human nature is nature of masses who are faithful to their will personally in any social circumstances, and all the humans are masses radically and intrinsically. But there are cases where to be faithful to human nature impedes our life of a person, or of a community. So Karakuri must be established, even though it is contradictory to human nature. For example, during the war time, the military had to make soldiers faithful to a Karakuri called bushido, morals of soldiers that it is much better to die than to receive disgrace as captive, because Japanese would hate to battle in general, and without such Karakuri, Japanese would escape from the battles for their country.In this way, Karakuris shows peculiarity or special characteristics of persons or communities, even though they are based on universal human nature or nature of masses, and in Japan they brought about tragic situations. Never to repeat such situations, and to realize eternal peace, Ango points out absurdity and contradictory construction of conventional Karakuri as to what Japanese people are, or peculiarity of Japanese people, and insists that Japanese people go back to or evolve into, nature of masses or universality. And as a way to universality, Ango argues the importance of art which is not conventional in or peculiar to Japan, but is open to masses universally.
著者
高 巖 Iwao Taka
出版者
麗澤大学経済学会
雑誌
麗澤経済研究 (ISSN:09196706)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.57-66, 2010-03

In this article, we describe how management philosophy affects corporate performance.For this purpose, we conducted experimental and statistical analyses on two corporations and clarified causal relationships between management philosophy and members' performance(their commitment, motivation, contribution, etc.).At the beginning, we introduced three variables, which make it easier for us to understand how individuals treat management philosophy: (1) reflecting philosophy on actual behavior, (2)knowing and understanding philosophy, and (3) having sympathy for philosophy.Using the results of the experimental research, we explore a persuasive model, which satisfactorily explains how those variables indirectly affect corporate performance via other factors. Second, with this model, we describe, for example, the way senior officers treat management philosophy influences the extent to which followers accept the philosophy. We also suggest that a sense of unity and solidarity helps members take the philosophy seriously. Third, we discuss how management philosophy triggers innovative behavior in organizations.The point we have tried to make in this article is that the more deeply and widely management philosophy permeates an organization, the higher and the stronger performance (of individuals) could be achieved.