著者
天野 健作
出版者
THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES
雑誌
水文・水資源学会誌 (ISSN:09151389)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.27, no.2, pp.77-83, 2014-05-05 (Released:2014-12-27)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
2

国際河川であるメコン川の流域に超大国である米国が急速に接近し始めている.オバマ政権発足後,米国の外交政策が「アジア回帰」に転換したことの一環だが,その目的の一つは,東南アジアに多大な影響力を及ぼす中国を牽制する意図がある.非流域国である米国の関与は,ミャンマーの民政化の進展でさらに拍車がかかった.こうした中,中国は相次いでダムを建設するなどメコン川の一方的な水資源の利用により,下流国が批判の声を強めつつあることで,メコン川流域では緊張の度合いが増しつつある.国際社会は依然として「力の政治」が一面で支配しており,国際河川の利用をめぐっても,こうした超大国の動向は,国際機関を軸とする国際的協力枠組みを分析する以上に重要な要因である.
著者
天野 健作
出版者
一般財団法人 アジア政経学会
雑誌
アジア研究 (ISSN:00449237)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.2, pp.55-68, 2015-06-30 (Released:2015-07-07)
参考文献数
54
被引用文献数
2

The confrontation between China and India concerning water resources in the Brahmaputra River (known as “Yarlung Zangbo” in Chinese), which flows through both countries, has been deepening in recent years. There have also been diplomatic negotiations between the two countries. This study aims to analyze the conflict and cooperation over the Brahmaputra’s waters.First, the study describes the South–North Water Transfer Project, a multi-decade Chinese infrastructure mega-project that aims to channel the abundance of fresh water from southern China to the more arid north through canal systems. One development included in a western route of this project involves expanding the Brahmaputra. Ten dams have already been completed on this river, and China plans to build the world’s largest dam, even larger than the Three Gorges Dam, on the Brahmaputra. India fears that the project will have a significant impact on the lower river region.Second, the study considers both India’s protest as a lower riparian country and China’s reaction as an upper riparian country. Even though India’s fisheries industry and ecological system are affected by Chinese development on the river, China did not publicly acknowledge its development activities until 2010. Instead it pursued what could be called a silent strategy. Since admitting the project’s existence, China has sought to minimize the impact on downstream countries. However, the initial silent strategy has clearly amplified distrust on the Indian side.Third, the study considers steps toward a cooperative relationship between the two countries. Although there is no binding legal agreement, China and India have established an expert-level committee and provided hydrological information to each other. They have also signed a memorandum of understanding that will guide expansion of their cooperative relationship.As a guide to future work, the study indicates the immaturity of international standards and law to settle a conflict concerning an international river. In this respect, it is important to analyze the applicability of “the Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses,” which entered into force in August 2014. Furthermore, the study indicates that there is a third country, Bangladesh, with concerns regarding the Brahmaputra’s resources. A water allocation agreement has been signed between India and Bangladesh.When we emphasize only the aspects of conflict taking place regarding this international river, it appears that two large Asian countries are heading toward a collision. However, as shown in this study, China and India are trying to build a cooperative relationship. This situation can be perceived as a case study in international trust-building.
著者
天野 健作
出版者
一般財団法人 日本国際政治学会
雑誌
国際政治 (ISSN:04542215)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2017, no.186, pp.186_146-186_158, 2017-01-30 (Released:2017-04-07)
参考文献数
41

This study considers the conflict-prevention mechanisms over international rivers between India and its neighboring countries (Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal). India is a country where three important international rivers flow. The discussion concerns the Indus, the Ganges and the Mahakali rivers. Conflicts have taken place in the past over water resources between India and its neighboring countries, but India has presently signed treaties and Memorandum of Understandings and established mutually acceptable mechanisms for the development and management of the rivers. Furthermore, they have put in place permanent joint organizations, exchange of data, and river inspections.Previous studies have analyzed how the conflict-prevention mechanisms were established in the process; however, no one has examined their effectiveness and weaknesses. In addition, there are no studies comparing policies and diplomatic efforts for all three rivers.India and its neighbors have instituted permanent joint organizations to manage the water resources and have kept these organizations far from another politics. The role of mechanism’s factor is important and thus it was also investigated. For example, in the case of the Indus River, the mechanism does not specify the quantity of water allocated as shown in the Ganges River, but it effectively provides for a territorial type of sharing. It does not change the bounders between India and Pakistan, but traces a fictitious line that divides the basin and limits the sovereign rights of use of each state. In the case of the Mahakali River,which is at the border of India and Nepal, both countries benefited equally from the instituted irrigation and flood management policies.Finally, this study examined the weaknesses of the conflict-prevention mechanisms. In the case of the Indus River, Pakistan has filed complaints against India to the Permanent Court of Arbitration concerning water resources for India to resolve the conflict. The court favored Pakistan on three out of four points, namely the restriction on India to maintain the minimum flow of the River, environmental protection and the diversion of water. However, the court ruled against and maintained that the instituted mechanisms function well.In conclusion, while water supply and demand across the world is tight, considering mechanisms to prevent conflicts over water resources between countries will be significant. Especially, water demand in Asia is even sharply increasing compared to the world. Among them, India is a unique example of a country that shares waterways with more than one country.