- 長崎大学医療技術短期大学部紀要 (ISSN:09160841)
- vol.14, no.1, pp.69-76, 2001-03
高機能自閉症及びアスペルガー障害のコミュニケーション評価を作成するために,日本文化に適合させた「心の理論」高次テストを新たに紙芝居形式にて8話試作した.そしてその妥当性について健常青年76名の回答と作成意図との一致率により検討し予備的研究を行った.その結果,8割以上の一致率を示した話は,嘘を意図した「ガッシャーン」(100%),皮肉「どろんこサトル君」(97.4%),冗談「はい100万円」(93.4%),ふり「ねむたくなーい」(78.9)%で,この4話は妥当性が示唆された.他の4話についても「プレゼント何かな」はふりを伴う罪のない嘘,「荷物がいっぱい」は比喩・ふりを伴う皮肉,「かけっこはやいね」及び「のぞいてみよう」は比喩を伴う冗談の話であることが示唆され,複数の意図を留意すれば妥当性があると考えられた.A test consisted of eight picture-stories, based on the "Advanced Test of Theory of Mind" (Happe, 1994) and its stories culturally-adjusted, was invented to construct some type of occupational-therapeutic index to evaluate communication-abilities of Japanese people with high functioning autism or Asperger's Disorders. Validity of the test was inspected by examining rates of agreement between the answers of 76 subjects (normal young adults) and correct (i.e., researcher-intended) answers on each story. Agreement of the answers on Story 1 ("A Broken Vase" ; Theme A = Lies) , Story 8 ("A Boy Who Got Muddy" ; Theme F = Ironies) , Story 7 (" A Million Yen, Please" ; Theme E = Jokes), and Story 6 (" Not Sleepy Yet!" ; Theme D = Pretense). were 100%, 97.4%, 93.4%, and 78.9%, respectively. For other stories, however, answers of the subjects were scattered over several themes On Story 2 ( " What is the Present?"; Theme B = Innocent lies), most subjects answered identical (64.5%) as intended by the researchers (i.e., innocent lies), but statistically significant numbers of subjects (32.9%) selected Theme D (Pretense) Moreover, on Story 3 ("Too Much Baggage!"; Theme C = Metaphors) most of the answers focused on " metaphors (Theme C) " (50.0%) but some answered " pretense (Theme D) (14.5%) " or " irony (Theme F) (26.3%) ". The answers on two other stories (Story 4 " You Run So Fast! -- Metaphors " & Story 5 " It's a telescope i " -- Pretense " ) unexpectedlly fell more into " jokes (Theme E) " Especially on " metaphor-stories, " many subjects selected " ironies (Theme F) " or " jokes (Theme E) " to reason the story characters' utterance. This seemed to indicate that normal young adults were usually able to understand complexity of relationship among the story characters and to judge their communicative intensions based on it. The present study showed that the Japanese picture-story test presented acceptable level of validity. It was also indicated that the test should be used with care and understanding that some of the stories could contain more than one theme.