著者
TAKUMI TSUTAYA MINORU YONEDA MIKIKO ABE TOMOHITO NAGAOKA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.190403, (Released:2019-06-21)

The reconstruction of everyday diets in villages is important for understanding the diversity of diets and commerce networks of food items in premodern Japan. However, premodern diets in villages have not been well studied compared with those in cities. In this study, stable isotope analyses were performed on 23 adult human skeletons excavated from Sendaiji, a mountainous woodland village of underground Christians in Osaka in premodern Japan. No significant isotopic differences was found between individuals identified as Buddhists and those identified as Christians or between females and males. The total mean carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were –21.1 ± 0.4‰, 11.6 ± 1.0‰, and 8.9 ± 1.3‰, respectively. The carbon isotope ratios in Sendaiji were the lowest among the studied premodern populations probably because these individuals consumed woodland foods that are affected by the canopy effect. No significant correlation between sulfur and nitrogen isotope ratios was apparent, suggesting that there was little contribution from marine foods or marine fertilizers to the diet of individuals in premodern Sendaiji. The relatively high nitrogen isotope ratios in Sendaiji were possibly because of the denitrification in paddy rice fields, ammonium uptake by paddy rice, use of animal fertilizers, and/or consumption of freshwater fish. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed bioarchaeological study of the premodern diet in a mountainous village in western Japan.
著者
NOBORU ADACHI JUNMEI SAWADA MINORU YONEDA KOICHI KOBAYASHI SHIGERU ITOH
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.121, no.2, pp.137-143, 2013 (Released:2013-08-27)
参考文献数
37
被引用文献数
5 11

Obtaining genetic information about early humans is indispensable to our understanding of the demographic history of mankind. In the present study, we performed a detailed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of a skeleton of the initial Jomon era unearthed from the Yugura cave site in Nagano, Japan, which was dated to 7920–7795 calBP by direct 14C dating. mtDNA of the Yugura skeleton was designated to haplogroup D4b2, which is widely observed in present-day East Asians, including the Japanese, but is absent in Hokkaido Jomon people. This finding indicates that the basal population of Japan was heterogeneous with respect to their mtDNA lineage. This is the first report on the genotype of the people from the initial phase of the Jomon period.
著者
TAKASHI GAKUHARI HAJIME KOMIYA JUNMEI SAWADA TOMOKO ANEZAKI TAKAO SATO KENICHI KOBAYASHI SHIGERU ITOH KOICHI KOBAYASHI HIROYUKI MATSUZAKI KUNIO YOSHIDA MINORU YONEDA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.150309, (Released:2015-06-11)
被引用文献数
3 5

Two complete dog skeletons were recovered during archeological excavations from 1961 to 1970 at the Kamikuroiwa rock shelter, a site that yielded a series of cultural entities from the Late Pleistocene, Incipient Jomon, and Early Jomon periods. Since two dogs were buried close to human skeletons, it was thought that these dogs had been buried by Jomon people, and hence provided the oldest direct evidence of Canis domestication in Japan. However, the stratigraphic information and archeological contexts of these dog skeletons are incomplete due to the lack of detailed excavation reports and technical limitations of excavations at this site. Because the date of the dog burials has not been fully discussed in the context of modern chronology or recent discussions on Canis domestication, we directly measured radiocarbon ages and stable isotope analysis on two dog burials and one set of human remains from the Kamikuroiwa rock shelter. These data are important for reconstructing the relationship between humans and dogs in the Jomon period. Our results show that the human thought to have been buried with the dogs was assigned to the middle Initial Jomon period (8977–8725 calBP), whereas, on the other hand, dates for the dog burials are very close to each other and were assigned to the latest Initial Jomon or the initial Early Jomon periods (7414–7273 calBP). Although these results are not consistent with previous archeological interpretations for this site, they remain important because these two dog burials are among the oldest evidence of Canis domestication in East Asia.
著者
OSAMU KONDO MINORU YONEDA YASUHIRO TANIGUCHI
出版者
The Anthropological Society of Nippon
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.126, no.3, pp.151-164, 2018 (Released:2018-12-21)
参考文献数
39

A new excavation of the Iyai rock-shelter site has uncovered more than a dozen human skeletal remains from the Initial Jomon period. We describe here an almost complete female skeleton (Iyai 1), and examine this in the context of morphological variation in Jomon females, especially those of the Initial Jomon period. Two radiocarbon dates based on the Iyai 1 skeletal samples show a calibrated date c. 8300–8200 calBP, belonging to the later part of the Initial Jomon period. The Iyai 1 skeleton was found in a burial pit with an unusual body placement. Although it was a flexed burial with the both arms and limbs flexed, the upper and lower body was disconnected at the waist and the two portions placed on top of each other: the upper body was laid on its abdomen with the head faced into the pelvis, and the lower body was found under the upper trunk in a supine position. The individual is a young female, 146 cm in height using Sasou–Fujii method, and the age at death is estimated as c. 20–40 years. The neurocranium is long (cranial index = 79.9) and high (length–height index = 77.1), the face is wide and low (upper-facial index = 43.4). The dentition shows nearly horizontal heavy wear but no dental caries with an edge-to-edge bite occlusion. The postcranial long bones are gracile, although they exhibit clear musculature impressions in some attachment areas. No paleopathological bone modification was found. The talus exhibits a ‘squatting’ facet at the anterior contact of the talocrural joint. The stable isotopic signature of Iyai 1 falls among those of the inland Initial Jomon people, indicating that her proteins mainly came from C3 plants and terrestrial animals.