著者
菅瀬 晶子 Sugase Akiko スガセ アキコ
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.40, no.4, pp.619-652, 2016-03-31

歴史的にパレスチナと呼ばれてきた地域に建国されたユダヤ人国家イスラエルには,2 割程度のアラブ人市民が居住し,そのうち約8%をキリスト教徒が占めている。ユダヤ教徒やムスリムとは異なり,食の禁忌を持たない彼らは豚肉を食し,この地における豚肉生産・消費・流通をほぼ独占している。そのいっぽうで,豚肉食に嫌悪感を示すキリスト教徒もすくなくはない。聞き取り調査の内容からは,彼らの豚肉食嫌悪は比較的最近生じた傾向であることがわかる。そこにはムスリムやユダヤ教徒の価値観の影響もみられるが,もっとも大きな影響をおよぼしたのはイスラエルによるアラブ人市民に対する政策である。本来豚肉食は,キリスト教徒の主たる生業である農業と密接にかかわっていたが,軍政による農業の衰退や,豚肉食と密接にかかわっていた野豚猟の事実上の非合法化により,キリスト教徒の豚肉食観は大きく変化した。宗教的アイデンティティの根幹に深いかかわりを持っていた豚肉食への嫌悪感の増大は,キリスト教徒としての宗教的アイデンティティの損失をあらわしているといえる。
著者
江口 重幸 エグチ シゲユキ Shigeyuki Eguchi
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.4, pp.1113-1179, 1988-03-26

This paper examines two cases of fox possession (kitsunetsuki)in a mountain village in eastern Shiga Prefecture. The studyfocuses on the socio-religious and clinical context of the expressionof possession.In Japan, kitsunetsuki has long been one of the most familiarexpressions of indigenous "madness". Nevertheless, psychiatricresearch on the phenomenon, including those from folkloristicand religious perspectives, have been conducted only since the1960s. Hitherto, kitsunetsuki had been regarded as a vestige ofsuperstition.The first part of the paper deals with some methodologicalproblems encountered when spirit possession is defined as a"culture-bound syndrome". The features of this phenomenonchange according to various approaches used to understand it.In the second part, two cases are examined from psychiatricrecords. In the first a 18-year-old male became psychoticallyexcited after fatigue and a traffic accident. During his severeconfusion he manifested fox-like jumping actions. His familyregarded him as being possessed by local gods, and so left himunattended for a month. He was hospitalized and was incomplete remission after three months of treatment. Hisillness is diagnosed as "atypical psychosis" [MITSUDA 1979:121-124].In the second case a 34-year-old housewife (an aunt of themale in the first case), entered a psychiatric hospital as a resultof illness induced by conjugal discord. After undergoing a seriesof religious rituals to evict the fox that possessed her, she came tohear the voices of three foxes. Her illness is diagnosed as typical"invocations psychosis" [MORITA (森田) 1915: 286-287].These two cases reveal a discrepancy between traditionaltherapeutic ritual and modern psychiatric treatment.In the third part of this paper, Kitsunetsuki is re-examinedfrom the socio-religious viewpoint, based on interviews withvillagers. The reasons for the occurrence in this village ofsymptoms of fox possession are considered in their cultural andreligious contexts. Kitsunetsuki of this district can be traced backto folkloristic and religious lines. Among other phenomena thisis attested to by many folktales of foxes, public religious ritualspracticed by the folkpriest, occasional visits of a man of the"mountain religion" and his furious performances under godpossession,and the famous kyogen play, which contains themetamorphosis of fox, derived from the family temple of thevillagers. A major factor was acute social change in 1950s (e.g.,in the marriage system, in traditional forestry, etc.). Onetherapeutic religious cult which came to exert considerableinfluence over the traditional religious order of this village wasfinally absorbed into a large sect of Buddhism. Typically,spirit possession in this village seemed to be formed in accordancewith the god-possessing seances of this cult. From this standpointthe two cases examined expressed themselves through the symbolicrepresentation of "fox", when they reached psychologicalcrises. The other curious disease, "K village disease", is avariant product of this process. These acts of performance aremolded upon the complicated socio-cultural background;"possession complex" .The last part of this paper presents some complementaldiscussions on the expression of fox-possession. The folkloristicand "symptomatic" peculiarity of this mountainous district, andits tendency to combine with spirit possession, is analysed andcompared with that in the plain district. Two different types ofshamanism, spirit possession and ecstacy, are reconsidered,based on the analogy of schizophrenic symptoms and othermystical thoughts. The body in a state of possession and theassociated healing process are reviewed from theatrical andpolitical points of view.After examining kitsunetsuki as a performed expression, it ispointed out that the Westernized psychiatric nomenclature only
著者
石毛 直道
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.1-41, 1986-08-25
被引用文献数
3
著者
伊東 一郎 イトウ イチロウ Ichiro Ito
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.4, pp.767-796, 1982-03-30

This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of thewerewolf belief among the Slavic peoples. It concludes by advancingthe following hypothesis: that among the Slays there existed aritual transformation into wolves by the young warriors society andthat from the 10th century, after this ritual had disappeared, it wasrecalled via folkloric and ethnographic motifs, viz: (1) the werewolfbelief connected with the cult of magician and spread chiefly amongthe Western and Eastern Slays; (2) the folkloric motif of the"Shepherd of Wolves" occurred mainly among the Southern Slays;and (3) disguising as wolves by groups of young people during theWinter Ritual, which was a characteristic chiefly of the SouthernSlavs.
著者
伊東 一郎
出版者
国立民族学博物館
雑誌
国立民族学博物館研究報告 (ISSN:0385180X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.6, no.4, pp.767-796, 1982-03-30