著者
RYUICHI MASUDA TAKAO SATO
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.150111, (Released:2015-03-25)
被引用文献数
3 3

To investigate the genetic variation of Jomon dogs (Canis familiaris) in Japan, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region were determined from dog bone remains, which were excavated from two Jomon-period archaeological sites, the Kamikuroiwa Rock Shelter site in Ehime Prefecture (Shikoku Island) and the Higashimyo site in Saga Prefecture (Kyushu Island), Japan. Of seven individuals from the Kamikuroiwa Rock Shelter site, the mtDNA sequences from two individuals were successfully determined. Comparison of the resultant 215 base pair sequences with previously reported sequences showed that one of these two individuals had a new haplotype, named KRA1, and that the other had the previously reported M1 haplotype. For the Higashimyo site, three of11 individuals yielded successful sequences. Two of these three individuals shared M1 and the other one had M20, both of which are haplotypes previously reported in modern Japanese dogs, but had not been found in any Jomon dogs. The success rate in the present study was 27.8% (5/18 samples). It is noticed that the three mtDNA haplotypes (M1, M20 and KRA1) were found in Jomon dogs for the first time. In addition, sequence data were obtained from Jomon dogs in Shikoku for the first time. The results suggest that the genetic lineages in the Jomon dog populations were more polymorphic than previously reported, and that at least some maternal lineages shared in the Jomon period descended to modern dogs on the Japanese islands.
著者
Takao Sato Tomoki Kameyama Takashi Ohori Akira Matsuki Hiroshi Inoue
出版者
一般社団法人 日本動脈硬化学会
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.23390, (Released:2014-05-16)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
1 8

Aim: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a pathogenic fat depot that may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Because eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been reported to exert cardiovascular protective effects, we aimed to assess the effects of EPA on the volume of visceral adipose tissue, including EAT and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), using multislice computed tomography (CT). Methods: In 30 patients with coronary artery diseases (9 women; mean age, 67.2±5.4 years), EAT and AVAT volumes were compared between the control group (n=15, conventional therapy) and the EPA group (n=15, conventional therapy plus purified EPA 1800 mg/day) during a six-month period. EAT was defined as any pixel that had CT attenuation of -150 to -30 Hounsfield units (HU) within the pericardial sac. Results: After the six-month follow-up, the serum EPA level increased from 59.9±18.8 to 177.2± 3.3 μg/mL in the EPA group (p<0.01), but no increase was noted in the control group. Similarly, the EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio increased from 0.39±0.12 to 1.22±0.28 in the EPA group (p<0.01), with no significant increase in the control group. The AVAT and EAT volumes decreased in the EPA group but were unchanged in the control group (AVAT, −11.6±17.0 vs. +8.8±13.6 cm2, p<0.01; EAT, −7.3±8.3 vs. +8.7±8.8 cm3, p<0.01). Moreover, the change in the AVAT volume negatively correlated with the change in EPA (r=−0.58, p<0.01) and EPA/AA levels (r=−0.53, p<0.01). A similar negative correlation in these parameters was also observed for the EAT volume. Conclusions: Oral intake of purified EPA appears to be associated with reductions in EAT and AVAT volumes.
著者
TAKASHI GAKUHARI HAJIME KOMIYA JUNMEI SAWADA TOMOKO ANEZAKI TAKAO SATO KENICHI KOBAYASHI SHIGERU ITOH KOICHI KOBAYASHI HIROYUKI MATSUZAKI KUNIO YOSHIDA MINORU YONEDA
出版者
日本人類学会
雑誌
Anthropological Science (ISSN:09187960)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.150309, (Released:2015-06-11)
被引用文献数
3 5

Two complete dog skeletons were recovered during archeological excavations from 1961 to 1970 at the Kamikuroiwa rock shelter, a site that yielded a series of cultural entities from the Late Pleistocene, Incipient Jomon, and Early Jomon periods. Since two dogs were buried close to human skeletons, it was thought that these dogs had been buried by Jomon people, and hence provided the oldest direct evidence of Canis domestication in Japan. However, the stratigraphic information and archeological contexts of these dog skeletons are incomplete due to the lack of detailed excavation reports and technical limitations of excavations at this site. Because the date of the dog burials has not been fully discussed in the context of modern chronology or recent discussions on Canis domestication, we directly measured radiocarbon ages and stable isotope analysis on two dog burials and one set of human remains from the Kamikuroiwa rock shelter. These data are important for reconstructing the relationship between humans and dogs in the Jomon period. Our results show that the human thought to have been buried with the dogs was assigned to the middle Initial Jomon period (8977–8725 calBP), whereas, on the other hand, dates for the dog burials are very close to each other and were assigned to the latest Initial Jomon or the initial Early Jomon periods (7414–7273 calBP). Although these results are not consistent with previous archeological interpretations for this site, they remain important because these two dog burials are among the oldest evidence of Canis domestication in East Asia.
著者
Takao Sato Tomoki Kameyama Takashi Ohori Akira Matsuki Hiroshi Inoue
出版者
一般社団法人 日本動脈硬化学会
雑誌
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis (ISSN:13403478)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.21, no.10, pp.1031-1043, 2014-10-24 (Released:2014-10-24)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
1 8

Aim: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a pathogenic fat depot that may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Because eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been reported to exert cardiovascular protective effects, we aimed to assess the effects of EPA on the volume of visceral adipose tissue, including EAT and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), using multislice computed tomography (CT). Methods: In 30 patients with coronary artery diseases (9 women; mean age, 67.2±5.4 years), EAT and AVAT volumes were compared between the control group (n=15, conventional therapy) and the EPA group (n=15, conventional therapy plus purified EPA 1800 mg/day) during a six-month period. EAT was defined as any pixel that had CT attenuation of -150 to -30 Hounsfield units (HU) within the pericardial sac. Results: After the six-month follow-up, the serum EPA level increased from 59.9±18.8 to 177.2± 3.3 μg/mL in the EPA group (p<0.01), but no increase was noted in the control group. Similarly, the EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio increased from 0.39±0.12 to 1.22±0.28 in the EPA group (p<0.01), with no significant increase in the control group. The AVAT and EAT volumes decreased in the EPA group but were unchanged in the control group (AVAT, −11.6±17.0 vs. +8.8±13.6 cm2, p<0.01; EAT, −7.3±8.3 vs. +8.7±8.8 cm3, p<0.01). Moreover, the change in the AVAT volume negatively correlated with the change in EPA (r=−0.58, p<0.01) and EPA/AA levels (r=−0.53, p<0.01). A similar negative correlation in these parameters was also observed for the EAT volume. Conclusions: Oral intake of purified EPA appears to be associated with reductions in EAT and AVAT volumes.