著者
Naoko OSHIMA Shinji KADOKURA Hisashi KATO
出版者
The Association of Japanese Geographers
雑誌
地理学評論 (ISSN:13479555)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.5, pp.336-351, 2004-04-01 (Released:2008-12-25)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1 1

The development of a quantitative method to predict regional extreme high temperature due to global warming is necessary. In this study, a statistical downscaling model for estimating monthly mean daily maximum temperature in August in Japan was proposed and examined. The model related the local variable with the principal components of large-scale climate variables over the region using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The principal components of air temperature and zonal wind at 850hPa level, sea level pressure, and geopotential height at 500hPa level were selected as eligible predictors. The statistical model was evaluated by the cross validation procedure. The correlation coefficients between the observation and the regression estimates were significant at most stations, and the model estimated the observation fairly well. Therefore it was confirmed that the method is applicable to the estimation of high temperature in the region. The method was then applied to the output of NCAR-CSM. The 1×CO2 climate downscaled from the global model output was generally cooler than the observation due to the underestimate of 850hPa air temperature to the north of Japan showing that the downscaling model reflects deviations in the global model.
著者
Haruhiko SUZUKI Naoko OSHIMA Toshihiro WATARI
出版者
JAPANESE SOCIETY OF VETERINARY SCIENCE
雑誌
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science (ISSN:09167250)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.82, no.11, pp.1589-1593, 2020 (Released:2020-11-12)
参考文献数
23

Cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) generates severe inflammatory reactions secondary to hemodilution and surgical stress. This study was conducted to evaluate whether modified ultrafiltration (MUF) could be performed safely and to clarify its effects during mitral valve repair in dogs in terms of hemodilution and the status of inflammatory cytokines. We retrospectively studied 38 dogs with mitral valve disease who underwent MUF immediately after mitral valve repair under CPB. To determine the effect of MUF, we measured the pre- and post-MUF blood dilution and blood cytokine levels. The levels of red blood cells, hematocrit (HCT), and albumin were significantly increased after MUF, whereas interleukin (IL)-6 levels were significantly increased from 24.3 (range 9.6–54.6) to 32.3 (15.9–65.1) pg/ml. The levels of IL-8 and IL-10 declined significantly after MUF, from 368.2 (246.1–669.4) and 45.4 (28.6–76.1) to 272.2 (174.1–414.4) and 28.8 (18.8–44.5) pg/ml, respectively. Our results demonstrated that MUF can be applied in dogs undergoing CPB and is effective in achieving hemoconcentration. Moreover, MUF may be useful for the removal of cytokines. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and clarify the effects of inflammatory cytokines after CPB.