著者
Naoko OSHIMA Shinji KADOKURA Hisashi KATO
出版者
The Association of Japanese Geographers
雑誌
地理学評論 (ISSN:13479555)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.77, no.5, pp.336-351, 2004-04-01 (Released:2008-12-25)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1 1

The development of a quantitative method to predict regional extreme high temperature due to global warming is necessary. In this study, a statistical downscaling model for estimating monthly mean daily maximum temperature in August in Japan was proposed and examined. The model related the local variable with the principal components of large-scale climate variables over the region using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The principal components of air temperature and zonal wind at 850hPa level, sea level pressure, and geopotential height at 500hPa level were selected as eligible predictors. The statistical model was evaluated by the cross validation procedure. The correlation coefficients between the observation and the regression estimates were significant at most stations, and the model estimated the observation fairly well. Therefore it was confirmed that the method is applicable to the estimation of high temperature in the region. The method was then applied to the output of NCAR-CSM. The 1×CO2 climate downscaled from the global model output was generally cooler than the observation due to the underestimate of 850hPa air temperature to the north of Japan showing that the downscaling model reflects deviations in the global model.
著者
Harukazu Kanehira Akinori Agariguchi Hisashi Kato Shigeki Yoshimine Hiroshi Inoue
出版者
Japan Prosthodontic Society
雑誌
日本補綴歯科学会雑誌 (ISSN:03895386)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.375-380, 2008-07-10 (Released:2008-10-10)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
17 26

Purpose: To evaluate the causes of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) by examining the relationships between 3 major TMD symptoms, parafunction, and stress, a questionnaire survey was performed during dental examinations in corporations.Methods: The survey was performed using 6 questions on the following topics: 1. Trismus; 2. Joint noise; 3. Pain; 4. Clenching in the daytime; 5. Nocturnal bruxism; and 6. Stress.There were 3,225 subjects, 2,809 males and 416 females and the mean age of the subjects was 40.12 years. The relationships between questions 1 to 5 and question 6 were examined by the chi-square test.Results: There were significant correlations (question 1, p=0.001; questions 2-5, p<0.001).Conclusion: Clearly, there was an influence of psychological factors, such as stress, on TMD, and such factors were considered to play important roles in its etiology, progression, and treatment. The results of this study suggest that well-controlled studies of TMD are necessary.
著者
Shinya Masuda Hisashi Takakura Hisashi Kato Tetsuya Izawa
出版者
一般社団法人日本体力医学会
雑誌
The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine (ISSN:21868131)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.4, pp.435-439, 2014-09-25 (Released:2014-10-02)
参考文献数
57

A number of changes occur with aging in skeletal muscles including a reduction in muscle fiber size and fiber number. However, recent studies have indicated that the elderly tend to be more resistant to fatigue than the young, particularly during prolonged isometric muscle contraction. In this review, we explore the molecular mechanisms in muscle cells that are involved in this phenomenon. Aging has been thought to induce preferential loss of fast-type fibers. However, previous studies have shown that a fiber-type shift with aging is specific to the region, type and/or function of the muscles. Aging promotes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle, and ROS is suggested to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK signaling is involved in muscle atrophy, and it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). PGC-1α is considered a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and furthermore, it could be involved in the reinnervation of muscle fibers that have been denervated due to aging. Thus, the balance between AMPK and PGC-1α could play an important role in increasing fatigue resistance in aged skeletal muscle.