- 国立民族学博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (ISSN:0385180X)
- vol.7, no.1, pp.58-138, 1982-03-31
This paper reports on a study of the culture of the Hakkas,based on the surveys made in Mei Prefectural District (Guangdong[Kwangtung] Province) in 1979 and 1980, and in Longyan District(Fujian [Fukien] Province) in 1980.The Hakka (lit. "the Guest Family") people began migratingsouthwards from the Central Plains (i.e., the middle and lowerreaches of the Huanghe or Yellow River) at approximately the timeof the disruptions and great migrations, starting in the Three Kingdomsera (220-280 A.D.), continuing through the Jin [Chin]Dynasty (265-420 A.D.) and ending in the Northern and SouthernDynasties (420-589 A.D.). After several group migrations theHakkas arrived in their present-day main areas of residence, insouthern Jiangxi [Kiangsi] Province, northeastern GuangdongProvince, and western Fujian Province. Smaller groups of Hakkareside in other districts of Guangdong Province, Guangxi [Kwangsi],Zhuang [Chuang] Autonomous Region, Sichuan [Szechwan]Province, and Taiwan Province, among other areas.My fieldwork on Hakka culture, together with the research ofother scholars, in addition to demonstrating that the forms of pronunciationof the language spoken in the ancient Central Plains arestill used in the present-day Hakka language, also revealed that,for example, some characteristics of the Northern culture are continuedin the structure of the traditional Hakka house, and that besidestheir strong preference for rice, the "Mountain Songs" of the Hakkashave been influenced by the Southern culture of the districts intowhich they migrated.The mixture of Northern and Southern Chinese cultural elementsis a characteristic feature of Hakka culture. However, thecultural elements shared between the Hakkas and the Han exceedthose peculiar to the Hakka alone, thus permitting the conclusionthat Hakka culture is just one of many local cultures which composethe Han culture. There are few cultural characteristics that canbe used to distinguish the Hakkas as a nationality independent ofthe Han.NOTES :1. Chinese proper nouns are Romanized according to thePinyin system.2. Romanization in the Wade system is given in brackets.