著者
Harumi Okuyama Yoichi Fujii Atsushi Ikemoto
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.3, pp.157-177, 2000-06-01 (Released:2008-04-14)
参考文献数
183
被引用文献数
16 21

Classic lipid nutrition for the prevention of chronic, elderly-onset diseases was apparently established before 1960, assuming that hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor and that raising the polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio of dietary fatty acids is hypocholesterolemic. However, the hypocholesterolemic effect of linoleic acid (LA) was found to be transient. Furthermore, hypercholesterolemia itself is unlikely to be a serious risk factor for diseases in the elderly because serum cholesterol level is positively correlated with longevity. Instead, a high n-6/n-3 ratio of dietary fatty acids was found to increase thrombotic tendency, decrease peripheral blood flow and lead to persistent inflammation, which was proposed to be the major risk factor for atherosclerosis and related diseases. Based on animal experiments and epidemiological studies, we recommend a reduction in the intake of LA from a current value of >6 en% to half, and a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio from the current value of >4 to 2. Simply decreasing LA intake would produce the recommended n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance in Japan due to the typical Japanese diet, but both decreasing the intake of LA and increasing that of n-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is necessary in Western industrialized countries for the effective prevention of atherosclerosis and related diseases, as well as of apoplexy, allergic hyper-reactivity and cancers typical in Western populations.
著者
Ken Takeda Ken-ichiro Suzuki Aki Ishihara Miyoko Kubo-Irie Rie Fujimoto Masako Tabata Shigeru Oshio Yoshimasa Nihei Tomomi Ihara Masao Sugamata
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.95-102, 2009 (Released:2009-02-01)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
150 190

Nanomaterials are being used increasingly for commercial purposes, yet little is known about the potential health hazards such materials may pose to consumers and workers. Here we show that nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is used widely as a photo-catalyst and in consumer products, administered subcutaneously to pregnant mice is transferred to the offspring and affects the genital and cranial nerve systems of the male offspring. Nanoparticles identified as TiO2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were found in testis and brain of exposed 6-week-old male mice. In the offspring of TiO2-injected mice, various functional and pathologic disorders, such as reduced daily sperm production and numerous caspase-3 (a biomarker of apoptosis) positive cells in the olfactory bulb of the brain, were observed. Our findings suggest the need for great caution to handle the nanomaterials for workers and consumers.
著者
Takashi Asada Masayoshi Omichi Tomoko Kimura Kikuo Oikawa
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.47, no.4, pp.414-418, 2001 (Released:2002-03-29)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
4 5

Both calcined shell calcium, which was recently reported to have bactericidal effects on Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and calcium oxide, which is the main component in calcined shell calcium, were examined as a bactericide against Legionella species. A calcined shell calcium solution of 0.025% or above reduced L. pneumophila counts from the original 7.0 × 106 CFU/ml to less than 300 CFU/ml after an incubation period of 1 hr. In water samples taken from the cooling tower of a prefabricated house, a calcined shell calcium solution of 0.05% or above reduced L. pneumophila counts to less than 10 CFU/ml after an incubation period of 1 hr. There was no difference between the bactericidal effects of the calcined shell calcium manufactured from the shells of surf clams and that manufactured from oysters; surf clams and oysters are equally effective. Calcium oxide also showed similar bactericidal effects against L. pneumophila, and thus we believe that the effect is not specific to calcined shell calcium, but rather to effects caused by the alkalinity of calcium oxide. The use of calcium oxide or calcined shell calcium as a bactericidal agent against Legionella species in the cooling tower water of hotels or other buildings is therefore expected.
著者
Makino Yukiko Tanaka Satoshi Kurobane Shingo NAKAUCHI Masato TERASAKI Takahiro OHTA Shigeru
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of health science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.129-137, 2003-04-01
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
4 21

We have investigated 100 illegal amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) tablets seized in Japan to obtain information about the nature of these tablets abused in Japan. For physical characterization, 15 items (logo, vertical view, colour, diameter, weight, smell, <I>etc</I>.) were measured and a photograph was taken. For chemical characterization, the components in the tablet were identified by GC-MS and HPLC, and quantified by HPLC using an ODS-type column. The maximum content of <I>N</I>-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) was 189 mg/tablet and that of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) was 87 mg/tablet. The detected components, other than MDMA and MDA, were <I>N</I>-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDEA), ephedrine, caffeine, ketamine, and methamphetamine. In this report, we propose a method for profiling ATS tablets.
著者
Sun Nan Hao Lili Xue Jian Jin Hongyu Tian Jingai Lin Ruichao
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of health science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.4, pp.464-469, 2007-08-01
被引用文献数
13

A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous analysis of 18 pesticides (α-(C_6H_6Cl_6)-Benzene hexachloride, β-BHC, γ-BHC, δ-BHC, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, tecnazene, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), hexachlorobenzene, aldrin, methyl pentachlorophenyl sulphide (MPCPS), α-endosulfan, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane, p,p'-(C_<14>H_8Cl_4)-Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, o,p'-(C_<14>H_9Cl_5)-Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, p,p'-(C_<14>H_<10>Cl_4)-Dichlorodiphenyl dichloeoethane, p,p'-DDT) by gas chromatography (GC) in 10 Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) has been developed. The limit of detection was found to be 1.2×10^<13> to 9.0×10^<13>g with the recoveries ranging from 72.9 to 114.5% and Relative Standard Deviation being less than 17.5%. In addition, the assay was applied to monitor the residues in 10 TCMs, amongst which at least one of the above pesticides were found in 67 samples. The results showed that α-BHC was the most frequently detected with a presence of 44.6% in the tested samples, whilst heptachlor epoxide, trans-chlorodane, cis-chlorodane and p,p'-DDD were not detected at all. Nonetheless, none of pesticides in all samples appeared to exceed the maximum residue limits (MRLs) seen in the Chinese regulations.
著者
Teruaki Sakurai
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.3, pp.171-178, 2003 (Released:2003-06-01)
参考文献数
28
被引用文献数
15 16

Inorganic arsenic is clearly a toxicant and carcinogen in humans. In mammals, including humans, inorganic arsenic often undergo methylation, forming compounds such as pentavalent dimethyarsinic acid (DMAsV). Recent evidence indicates that DMAsV is a complete carcinogen in rodents while evidence for inorganic arsenic as a carcinogen in rodents remains unclear. Thus, we studied the molecular mechanisms of the in vitro cytolethality of DMAsV compared to that of the trivalent inorganic arsenic, sodium arsenite, using rat liver TRL 1215 cells. Arsenite was very cytotoxic in these cells; its lethal concentration in vitro in 50% of a population (LC50) was 20 μM after a 48-hr exposure. With arsenite, most dead cells showed histological and biochemical evidence of necrosis. The arsenite cytolethality markedly increased when cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted with the glutathione synthase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO). In contrast, DMAsV was nearly three orders of magnitude less cytotoxic (LC50 = 1.5 mM) although evidence showed the predominating form of death was apoptosis. Surprisingly, GSH depletion actually decreased the DMAsV-induced apoptosis. It is suggested that DMAsV requires intracellular GSH to induce apoptosis. Ethacrynic acid (EA), an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase that catalyzes GSH-substrate conjugation, and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of β-lyase which catalyzes the final breakdown of GSH-substrate conjugates, were also effective in suppressing the DMAsV-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that DMAsV was likely conjugated in some form with cellular GSH, and this conjugate induced apoptosis during subsequent metabolic reactions. Because apoptosis is a process by which organisms eliminate abnormal cells, the arsenic biomethylation in the human body may essentially a detoxicating event.
著者
Takashi Asada Shigehisa Ishihara Takeshi Yamane Akemi Toba Akifumi Yamada Kikuo Oikawa
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.6, pp.473-479, 2002 (Released:2002-12-05)
参考文献数
10
被引用文献数
76 98

We examined the relationship between the carbonizing temperature of bamboo carbide made from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and the removal effect of harmful gases and odorants, and the use of a bamboo charcoal as a countermeasure for “Sick Building Syndrome” or “Chemical Sensitivity” and the use as a deodorant. With regard to the carbonizing temperature of the bamboo charcoal, a temperature sensor was installed inside each bamboo material and the carbonizing temperature was controlled at 500, 700 and 1000°C. The removal effect was tested for formaldehyde, toluene and benzene that are known to cause “Sick Building Syndrome” or “Chemical Sensitivity” and for ammonia, indole, skatole and nonenal as odorants. The formaldehyde removal effect was only slightly different in the charcoal at all the carbonizing temperatures. The benzene, toluene, indole, skatole and nonenal removal effect were the highest for the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and tended to increase as the carbonizing temperature of the bamboo charcoal increased. The removal effect for ammonia was the highest on the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 500°C. It is concluded that the effective carbonizing temperature is different for each chemical, and a charcoal must be specifically selected for use as an adsorbent or deodorant.
著者
Dae Kyong Kim Yong Koo Kang Moo Yeol Lee Kwang-Gill Lee Joo-Hong Yeo Won Bok Lee Yong Sik Kim Sung Su Kim
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.3, pp.317-324, 2005 (Released:2005-06-01)
参考文献数
43
被引用文献数
8 8

This article was retracted. Please see the retraction notice.
著者
Yuji Takao Ho Chul Lee Shinya Kohra Koji Arizono
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.4, pp.331-334, 2002 (Released:2002-08-01)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
26 30

Nine different food cans, packed with water, were heat-treated for 30 min at 80 or 100°C in order to elucidate the trends associated with the leaching of bisphenol A (BPA) from internal coatings. Low levels of BPA were detected in water from all unheated cans, rising to 0.06 to 32 ng/cm2 after heating at 100°C. Reducing the heat-treatment temperature to 80°C was found to reduce the BPA concentration in the contained water by up to two-thirds. The cans that recorded the highest BPA concentrations in water after heating were found to have components (lid, bottom or body) with high available BPA contents.
著者
Masayoshi Yamaguchi Aki Igarashi Satoshi Uchiyama Seiichi Morita Kuniaki Sugawara Takashi Sumida
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.6, pp.619-624, 2004 (Released:2004-12-01)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
19 23

A change in circulating biochemical markers of bone metabolism in normal individuals with the intake of juice prepared from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu MARC.) containing β-crypthoxanthin was investigated. Twenty-one volunteers (ten males and eleven females) were divided into two groups of ten volunteers (five males and five females) and eleven volunteers (five males and six females), and each group was given sequentially juice (192 ml) containing two different contents of β-crypthoxanthin once a day for 28 or 56 days as follows: either regular juice with naturally occurring 802 μg β-cryptoxanthin/100 ml or a reinforced juice containing 1500 μg β-cryptoxanthin/100 ml. As serum bone markers, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, γ-carboxylated osteocalcin, bone tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and N-telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed. The intake of regular juice for 28 or 56 days caused a significant increase in γ-carboxylated osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, and the intake for 56 days produced a significant decrease in serum bone TRAP activity. Moreover, intake of the β-cryptoxanthin reinforced juice for 28 or 56 days caused a significant increase in serum β-carboxylated osteocalcin concentration and a corresponding decrease in serum bone TRAP activity and N-telopeptide of type I collagen, a marker of bone resorption. This study suggests that the intake of β-cryptoxanthin reinforced juice has a stimulatory effect on bone formation and an inhibitory effect on bone resorption in normal individuals.
著者
Maki Kinoyama Hayami Nitta Shinsuke Hara Akiharu Watanabe Kunihisa Shirao
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.5, pp.608-614, 2007 (Released:2007-10-01)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
2 3 7

We examined what changes occurred in the activity and content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood and the amount of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine as a consequence of oral administration of antioxidant health foods including plant-based SOD, vitamin C and vitamin E to seven healthy subjects every day for 15 days. Although there was a significant increase in the concentration of vitamins C and E in serum, there was a significant decrease in SOD (extracellular type) activity and Mn-SOD (mitochondrial type) content and a narrower range of variation therein. In contrast, there was a tendency toward an increase in the amount of 8-OHdG in the urine (observed in 6 of 7 subjects). We looked into the possibility that SOD activity was being inhibited by pycnogenol (water extract of the bark of the French maritime pine) as the main ingredient of the antioxidant health foods, and it became clear that SOD activity is included in pycnogenol. These results suggest that oral administration of antioxidant health foods containing SOD originating in plants has the effect of lowering the activity and content of SOD in the blood.
著者
Zeyad El-Akawi Nisreen Abdel-Latif Khalid Abdul-Razzak Mustafa Al-Aboosi
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.53, no.5, pp.596-599, 2007 (Released:2007-10-01)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
4 6

Minimal reports are available on the relationship between blood lipids such as cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and acne. Most of available literature was about the effect of drugs used in acne treatment on these parameters. In this work we determined plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C and LDL-C levels in 166 (83 males and 83 females) newly diagnosed untreated Jordanian acne patients and compared with 105 (52 males and 53 females) of age and sex matched healthy controls. Results indicated that acne patients, males and females, had significantly low plasma HDL-C levels (p=0.000). Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were shown to be within the normal range except for triglycerides and LDL-C levels in severe acne cases for both sexes, were shown to be significantly elevated compared with those in healthy controls (p=0.004 and 0.000 consequently). It has been noticed that there was a trend for plasma HDL-C of acne patients to decrease as the severity of acne condition increases. Our results indicated that acne patients have significant changes in the plasma lipids profile that should be considered in the pathogenesis as well as in the treatment of acne.
著者
Mari Asami Koji Kosaka Nobue Yoshida
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.4, pp.549-553, 2009 (Released:2009-08-01)
参考文献数
15
被引用文献数
22 28

The concentrations of chlorate and perchlorate were examined by ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS-MS) in 106 bottled beverages purchased or obtained mainly in the Tokyo area to estimate exposure to these chemicals attributable to bottled beverages. The bottled beverages were classified into 5 categories: water from the water supply (n=5), natural water (n=49), bottled water (n=10), tea (n=25), and soft drinks (n=17). Chlorate was detected in 85 bottled beverages (highest concentration, 700 μg/l), including all of the samples of bottled water from the water supply at levels ranging from 25 to 120 μg/l. Perchlorate was detected above the minimum reporting limit (i.e., 0.05 μg/l) from 62 bottled beverages, with the highest concentration of 0.92 μg/l. As the average consumption of bottled beverages calculated from market statistics is approximately 400 ml/day per person, it seems important to take the amounts of chlorate and perchlorate ingested from bottled beverages into consideration for estimation of total intake of these chemicals.
著者
Shuichi Masuda Shoko Uchida Yumeko Terashima Hiroko Kuramoto Mika Serizawa Yuya Deguchi Kazuhiro Yanai Chitose Sugiyama Itaro Oguni Naohide Kinae
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.3, pp.211-220, 2006 (Released:2006-06-01)
参考文献数
32
被引用文献数
7 10

The effects of repeatedly brewed green tea infusion on the formation of nitrosamine in vitro and in vivo, and on cancer mortality were examined. The first and second brews of green tea infusion inhibited the formation of nitrosomorpholine in the presence of morpholine and nitrite (nitrosation of morpholine), but the third to eighth brews accelerated it. The green tea infusion brewed from 5 g of leaves in 200 ml hot water (strong tea infusion) inhibited the nitrosation of morpholine, but that brewed from 2.5 g or less (weak tea infusion) promoted the nitrosation. The brewed green tea infusion that inhibited nitrosation of morpholine contained catechins at a high concentration, and that that promoted nitrosation contained catechins at a low concentration. The effects of green tea administered to Wistar male rats and that consumed by humans on the formation of nitrosamines were also examined. In both rats and humans, nitrosamine formation was inhibited by strong green tea extract but was increased by weak green tea extract. The concentration of catechins in the green tea infusion brewed by the general households in tea-producing areas was significantly higher than that brewed in non-producing areas. We examined the relationship between the concentration of catechins in green tea infusion brewed in different areas and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of cancer in respective areas, and found that the catechin concentration in green tea infusion correlated inversely and significantly with the SMR of cancer in that area. We concluded that strong green tea might inhibit the formation of nitrosamines and decrease the risk of carcinogenesis.
著者
Nishihara Tsutomu Nishikawa Jun-ichi Kanayama Tomohiko Dakeyama Fumi Saito Koichi Imagawa Masayoshi Takatori Satoshi Kitagawa Yoko Hori Shinjiro Utsumi Hideo
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of health science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.46, no.4, pp.282-298, 2000-08-01
被引用文献数
65

One of the urgent tasks in understanding endocrine disruptors (EDs) is to compile a list of suspected substances among the huge number of chemicals by using the screening test method. We developed a simple and rapid screening method using the yeast two-hybrid system based on the ligand-dependent interaction of nuclear hormone receptors with coactivators. To date, we have tested the estrogenic activity of more than 500 chemicals including natural substances, medicines, pesticides, and industrial chemicals. 64 compounds were evaluated as positive, and most of these demonstrated a common structure; phenol with a hydrophobic moiety at the para-position without bulky groups at the ortho-position. These results are expected to facilitate further risk assessment of chemicals.
著者
Yamaguchi Mitsune Saito Toshiaki Horiguchi Yoshie Ogawa Keita Tsuchiya Yukihiro Hishinuma Kayoko Chikuma Toshiyuki Makino Yukiko Hojo Hiroshi
出版者
公益社団法人日本薬学会
雑誌
Journal of health science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.6, pp.600-604, 2004-12-01
被引用文献数
3

The cultivation or trafficking of "Magic mushrooms," containing hallucinogenic psilocin and psilocybin, has been prohibited by the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law in Japan since 2002. To identify these mushrooms, we attempted to prepare the monoclonal antibody (mAb) reactive to these hallucinogens. As an antigen inducing an anti-psilocin mAb, N-{4-[3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)indol-4-yl-oxy]butyl}succinamic acid was synthesized by modifying the 4-hydroxyl moiety of psilocin and coupled to a carrier protein of keyhole limpet hemocyanin. BALB/c mice were immunized five times with the antigen emulsified with an adjuvant, and their spleen cells were fused with mouse myeloma cells. We obtained several hybridoma cells producing mAbs reactive to psilocin, from which fourclones, BA631, CA231, KA422, and MA332 with a higher production of anti-psilocin mAb were selected by limiting dilution. Isotype of CA231 and KA422 mAbs were IgG2a and that of BA631 and MA332 mAbs were IgGl.Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using BA631 mAb, revealed that BA631 cross-reacted with psilocin and dimethyltryptamine, but not with the other indole derivatives such as psilocybin, 4-hydroxyindole, tryptamine, and tryptophan. Therefore, these antibodies could be used for the identification of magic mushrooms.
著者
Mutsuo Ishizaki Tomoko Yanaoka Miki Nakamura Tadao Hakuta Seiichi Ueno Michihiko Komuro Miyako Shibata Tatsumi Kitamura Akira Honda Mikio Doy Kazuhiro Ishii Akira Tamaoka Nobuhiro Shimojo Tsuyoshi Ogata Eiko Nagasawa Shigeyuki Hanaoka
出版者
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
雑誌
Journal of Health Science (ISSN:13449702)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.130-137, 2005 (Released:2005-04-01)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
40 48

The inhabitants living in a specific region of Kizaki area in Kamisu-town, Ibaraki Prefecture exhibited uncommon clinical central nervous system symptoms. A graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer detected markedly elevated concentration of arsenic (4.5 ppm) in their drinking well water. Further investigation using HPLC, GC/MS and HPLC/ICP/MS demonstrated that the structures of the arsenic were bis(diphenylarsine)oxide (BDPAO), diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) and phenylarsonic acid (PAA), compounds that can be derived from the chemical warfare agents, diphenylchloroarsine (DA) and diphenylcyanoarsine (DC). The predominant form of the arsenic compound in the well water was DPAA (maximum 15 ppm), so that it was calculated that the inhabitants ingested 11-30 mg of DPAA daily. This is the first report of inhabitants that were injured by drinking well water contaminated with organic arsenic compounds that were likely derived from chemical weapons.