著者
瓦 比呂子 徳山 洋子 清水 義博
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.130, no.4, pp.577-581, 2010-04-01 (Released:2010-04-01)
参考文献数
5
被引用文献数
2 1

In January 2007, Daini Okamoto General Hospital introduced a new system in which pharmacists, together with physicians and nurses, address patients with cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival and inpatients with de novo cardiopulmonary arrest. Over the past 2 years since the introduction of the system, the role of pharmacists in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at the hospital has become increasingly established. Pharmacists prepare drugs for CPR, measure intervals during drug administration, and check the heart rhythm, produce records, pass drugs to physicians and nurses, and serve as CPR staff. CPR involves a large number of processes, and requires rapid responses. The participation of pharmacists in time management and drug administration, playing specific roles, has promoted role-sharing among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, as well as the establishment of a “resuscitation team” in the hospital. Emergency medicine is in a difficult situation. We believe that our efforts have helped pharmacists contribute to emergency care and provide high-quality CPR.
著者
鹿村 恵明 真野 泰成 小茂田 昌代 根岸 健一 佐藤 嗣道 宮崎 智
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.9, pp.1263-1273, 2016 (Released:2016-09-01)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
1 1

This nationwide survey aimed to evaluate reduction of drug and medical costs due to prevention of serious adverse drug reactions through pharmaceutical inquires by community pharmacist, and investigate relation with iyaku bungyo (separation of dispensing from medical practice) rates. Using the national list of pharmacies, 10% of pharmacies were randomly selected by prefecture and asked to participate in an Internet-based survey. The survey period was 7 days, from July 21 to July 27, 2015. Of the 5575 pharmacies queried, 818 responded to the survey (response rate: 14.7%). The proportion of inquiries to total prescriptions was 2.6%. Among these, the proportion of prescriptions changed in response to inquiry was 74.9%. An estimated 103 million yen was saved by reducing drug costs, and 133 million yen was saved by reducing medical costs due to prevention of serious adverse drug reactions. Comparison of prescription change rates between pharmacies with high and low iyaku bungyo rates indicated that the proportion of prescriptions changed was significantly higher in pharmacies with high iyaku bungyo rates than in those with low iyaku bungyo rates (78.2% vs. 69.9%, p<0.01). The findings suggest that inquiries about prescriptions are useful in ensuring the safety of pharmacotherapy and reducing the cost of healthcare. They also suggest that iyaku bungyo promotes prescription changes through inquiries, leading to proper use of pharmaceutical products.
著者
眞部 遥香 野澤 茜 松元 美香 大谷 道輝
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.6, pp.763-766, 2017-06-01 (Released:2017-06-01)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1

Steroid ointments are frequently mixed with moisturizer. It was reported that steroid ointments mixed with moisturizer increase permeability. There are only few studies done on the permeability of the moisturizer. We researched moisturizing effect of heparinoid ointment (Hirudoid Soft ointment) diluted with white petrolatum (Propeto) on the dry skin models by measuring water content of stratum. Two to four fold dilution of Hirudoid to white petrolatum resulted in a significant decrease in the moisturizing effect of the active ingredient. There was no significant difference in moisturizing effect between four times diluted mixture and white petrolatum alone. This leads to the conclusion that steroid ointment mixture with moisturizer is frequently used, but we should take more caution regarding the decrease of moisturizing effect.
著者
青島 周一 桑原 秀徳 山本 雅洋
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.10, pp.948-950, 2016 (Released:2016-10-01)
参考文献数
5

前景疑問に対する問題解決に、Evidence-based Medicine(EBM)の実践は必要不可欠である。しかしながら我が国では、EBMに対する薬剤師の認知度は高いとは言えない。「薬剤師のジャーナルクラブ」は論文抄読会をインターネット上で開催することで、EBM学習の場を提供する取り組みである。取り組み当初より、視聴者数は徐々に増え、現在ではコメント投稿機能を用いた活発な議論が展開されている。論文から深い考察や新鮮な驚きを得たことを示唆するコメントも多く、当取り組みは、EBM学習の場を提供するという点において、一定の役割を果たせるものと思われる。
著者
田村 恵理 岸本 桂子 福島 紀子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.133, no.6, pp.737-745, 2013 (Released:2013-06-01)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 2 1

This study sought to determine the effect of pharmacists wearing a mask on the consultation intention of patients who do not have a trusting relationship with the pharmacists. We conducted a questionnaire survey of customers at a Tokyo drugstore in August 2012. Subjects answered a questionnaire after watching two medical teaching videos, one in which the pharmacist was wearing a mask and the other in which the pharmacist was not wearing a mask. Data analysis was performed using a paired t-test and multiple logistic regression. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference in ‘Maintenance Problem’ between the two pharmacist situations. After excluding factors not associated with wearing a mask, multiple logistic regression analysis identified three independent variables with a significant effect on participants not wanting to consult with a pharmacist wearing a mask. Positive factors were ‘active-inactive’ and ‘frequency mask use’, a negative factor was ‘age’. Our study has shown that pharmacists wearing a mask may be a factor that prevents patients from consulting with pharmacist. Those patients whose intention to consult might be affected by the pharmacists wearing a mask tended to be younger, to have no habit of wearing masks preventively themselves, and to form a negative opinion of such pharmacists. Therefore, it was estimated that pharmacists who wear masks need to provide medical education by asking questions more positively than when they do not wear a mask in order to prevent the patient worrying about oneself.
著者
東田 道久
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.12, pp.1113-1115, 2015 (Released:2018-08-26)

北陸新幹線が開通し,関東から北陸へのアクセスが大変便利になった.東京から富山までは約2時間,名古屋と変わらない時間での往来が可能である.江戸の昔,越中富山藩は,加賀藩の負債も背負って独立,当初は経済的に恵まれない状況におかれていた.その状況を打開するために考え出された産業が「くすり」であった.くすりは命にかかわるため付加価値も極めて高く,また軽くて運びやすいため,遠方でも物流が容易である.江戸城内での販売促進キャンペーンを経て,売薬ネットワークも確立させ,越中・富山の産業として発展,今日まで続く「くすりの富山」ブランドの看板と独占的販売権 (懸場帳:かけばちょう) を築き上げてきた.本グラビアでは,今も富山の産業に深く根ざしている「くすり産業」の原点とも言えそうな昔ながらの趣を残す各地や博物館を訪ね,その歴史と,先人たちの熱意と情熱に思いを馳せる.(各施設等の説明文の後に,詳細情報をウェブより入手する際の検索ワードを記載した)
著者
柴田 承二
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.156-161, 1998
参考文献数
3
被引用文献数
1
著者
岸本 桂子 羽坂 亜希子 山浦 克典 福島 紀子
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.136, no.10, pp.1401-1413, 2016 (Released:2016-10-01)
参考文献数
40

Pharmacy is required to shift toward human service such as hearing the complaints of health. But the study about help-seeking behavior to pharmacist is not really investigated. We hypothesized that a decrease in expression visibility, due to pharmacists' typical masks, may negatively impact help-seeker' trust in pharmacist. The sample included 100 drugstore customers aged ≥18 years. Participants were stratified by gender and randomly assigned to two groups: evaluation of clear-masked and normal-masked pharmacists. After viewing a video with either male or female pharmacists wearing either clear or normal masks, participants completed a questionnaire. The primary outcome was trust in pharmacist measured by the Trust Scale and the secondary outcome was impression of the pharmacist measured by nineteen pairs of adjectives. There were no differences by gender on trust scores. Results revealed that both male and female pharmacists who wore clear masks were rated as more trustworthy than normal-masked pharmacists (p<0.001, d=0.903, and p=0.001, d=0.716, respectively). Sixteen of nineteen adjectives reported for pharmacists wearing normal masks indicated greater negative intention than those with clear masks (d=0.431-1.469). In most cases, among pharmacists wearing clear masks, results showed positive correlations between trust and each impression adjective (r=0.279-0.710). Our findings indicate that pharmacists wearing normal masks, which partially hide facial expressions, may decrease customer's trust in pharmacist. Further, normal masks were associated with negative impression. To avoid the inhibition of help-seek behavior, we recommend that pharmacists wear a clear mask and increase non-verbal communication.
著者
竹田 修三
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.133, no.10, pp.1093-1101, 2013-10-01 (Released:2013-10-01)
参考文献数
34
被引用文献数
8 6

Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2′,6′-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines.
著者
大町 康
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.135, no.4, pp.557-563, 2015 (Released:2015-04-01)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
1 1

When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented.
著者
佐藤 芳樹 菅谷 なえ子 中川 友夫 森田 昌敏
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.135, no.4, pp.631-642, 2015 (Released:2015-04-01)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
1 1

We established an analytical method for the detection of seven phthalates, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate, di-i-butyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octhyl phthalate, using an ultra high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a photodiode array detector. This method is quick, with minimal contamination, and was applied to the analysis of aromatic and deodorant aerosol products. Phthalates were detected in 15 of 52 samples purchased from 1999 to 2012 in Yokohama. Three types of phthalate (DEP, DBP, DEHP) were detected, and their concentrations ranged from 0.0085-0.23% DEP in nine samples, 0.012-0.045% DBP in four samples, and 0.012-0.033% DEHP in four samples. No other phthalate esters were detected. Furthermore, we estimated phthalate exposure via breathing in commonly used aromatic and deodorant aerosol products, then evaluated the associated risk. The estimated levels of phthalate exposure were lower than the tolerated daily limit, but the results indicated that aromatic and deodorant aerosol products could be a significant source of phthalate exposure.
著者
須藤 鎮世
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.135, no.11, pp.1197-1211, 2015-11-01 (Released:2015-11-01)
参考文献数
53
被引用文献数
5 5

The linear no-threshold model (LNT) was recommended in 1956, with abandonment of the traditional threshold dose-response for genetic risk assessment. Adoption of LNT by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) became the standard for radiation regulation worldwide. The ICRP recommends a dose limit of 1 mSv/year for the public, which is too low and which terrorizes innocent people. Indeed, LNT arose mainly from the lifespan survivor study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors. The LSS, which asserts linear dose-response and no threshold, is challenged mainly on three points. 1) Radiation doses were underestimated by half because of disregard for major residual radiation, resulting in cancer risk overestimation. 2) The dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) of 2 is used, but the actual DDREF is estimated as 16, resulting in cancer risk overestimation by several times. 3) Adaptive response (hormesis) is observed in leukemia and solid cancer cases, consistently contradicting the linearity of LNT. Drastic reduction of cancer risk moves the dose-response curve close to the control line, allowing the setting of a threshold. Living organisms have been evolving for 3.8 billion years under radiation exposure, naturally acquiring various defense mechanisms such as DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis, and immune response. The failure of LNT lies in the neglect of carcinogenesis and these biological mechanisms. Obstinate application of LNT continues to cause tremendous human, social, and economic losses. The 60-year-old LNT must be rejected to establish a new scientific knowledge-based system.
著者
上田 昌宏 高垣 伸匡 恩田 光子 荒川 行生 庄司 雅紀 大森 志保 清水 忠
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.140, no.2, pp.301-312, 2020-02-01 (Released:2020-02-01)
参考文献数
21

In Japanese pharmaceutical education, the Model Core Curriculum was revised in 2013 to train pharmacists who can appropriately evaluate literature and use evidence-based medicine (EBM). However, in the investigation of EBM education at pharmaceutical universities in 2015, it was found that literature evaluation was hardly performed in the education of undergraduate students. One of the reason is the lack of EBM lecturers at each universities. Therefore, we adopted team-based learning (TBL) to educate more than 50 undergraduate students on the practical evaluation of literatures and the understanding of EBM concepts. The learning outcomes of this strategy were evaluated using the scores of individual tests before and after the class. As a result, the mean scores on the post-test significantly improved from 4.34 to 6.42 out of 10 total points (p<0.001). We further administered a questionnaire survey regarding the understanding of EBM (the mean score was 4.12). In conclusion, it was suggested that TBL for a large number was effective in EBM education for providing knowledge of literature evaluation and the understanding of fundamental concepts.
著者
大谷 尚
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
薬学雑誌 (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.6, pp.653-658, 2017
被引用文献数
1

&emsp;The article is an in-depth explanation of qualitative research, an approach increasingly prevalent among today's research communities. After discussing its present spread within the health sciences, the author addresses: 1. Its definition. 2. Its characteristics, as well as its theoretical and procedural background. 3. Its procedures. 4. Differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. 5. Mixed methods incorporating quantitative research. And in conclusion: 6. The importance of establishing an epistemological perspective in qualitative research.<br>
著者
綿引 智成
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
ファルマシア (ISSN:00148601)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.9, pp.850-854, 2016 (Released:2016-09-02)
参考文献数
15

大麻草を乾燥または樹脂化した大麻には,カンナビノイド(CB)と呼ばれる60種類以上の活性成分が含まれ,古来より鎮痛や食欲増進等の目的で使用されてきた.しかし,陶酔感,短期の記憶・認識障害,または起立性低血圧を引き起こし,さらには依存性リスクも有することから,一部の国や州を除き大麻の医療目的使用は禁止されている.一方,1960年代に,大麻の主活性成分がΔ9-テトラヒドロカンナビノール(tetrahydrocannabinol:THC)であることが報告され,1990年代にはTHCの生体内標的分子としてカンナビノイド受容体タイプ1およびタイプ2(cannabinoid receptor type I and type II:CB1 and CB2)が同定された.さらに,CB受容体に対する生体内アゴニストとしてアナンダミド(anandamide:AEA)および2-アラキドノイルグリセロール(2-arachidonoylglycerol:2-AG)が発見され,それらに対する主要分解酵素がそれぞれ脂肪酸アミド加水分解酵素(fatty acid amide hydrolase:FAAH)およびモノアシルグリセロールリパーゼ(monoacylglycerol lipase:MAGL)であることも明らかとなっている(図1).本稿では,これらカンナビノイド系分子を標的とした医薬品開発状況を,各種データベースおよび文献情報からまとめたので概説する(表1).
著者
清水 忠 上田 昌宏 豊山 美琴 大森 志保 高垣 伸匡
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.8, pp.987-998, 2017 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

This study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based medicine (EBM) educational program on EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students. Our preliminary educational program included the following four sessions: 1) ice breaker, 2) formulation of answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario using the PICO criteria, 3) critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist, and 4) critical appraisal of the results and integrating the evidence with experience and patients values. Change in knowledge and skills related to EBM were evaluated using pre- and post-seminar 4-point scale questionnaires comprising of 14 questions. A total of 23 pharmacists, 1 care manager, and 5 pharmacy students participated in our EBM educational seminar. Knowledge and skills related to several variables improved significantly post-seminar (pre-seminar 2.80 versus 3.26 post-seminar; p<0.001). Specifically, the skills of formulating answerable clinical questions from virtual clinical scenario and critical appraisal of the literature using a checklist improved. Our findings suggested that EBM educational program using problem-based learning was effective in improving EBM-related knowledge and skills of pharmacists and pharmacy students.
著者
細野 智美 近藤 愛子 神林 泰行 本間 真人
出版者
公益社団法人 日本薬学会
雑誌
YAKUGAKU ZASSHI (ISSN:00316903)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.137, no.8, pp.999-1003, 2017 (Released:2017-08-01)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

Several case studies have reported a possible drug interaction between warfarin and tramadol where tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin. To assess this drug interaction, changes in prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) before and after tramadol coadministration were investigated in patients receiving warfarin. For this study, we examined 54 patients (male/female: 22/32, 68.4±12.7 years) who were being treated with warfarin for deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, arteriosclerosis obliterans, congestive heart failure, and other vascular diseases. Significant increases in PT-INR were observed 9.5 (1-118) d after coadministration of tramadol (1.81±0.56 vs. 2.47±1.10, p<0.01). Twenty-eight patients (PT-INR increased group) with PT-INR elevation of greater than 0.5 or dose reduction of warfarin after coadministration of tramadol were compared with other groups of patients to find drug interaction risk factors. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower levels of albumin (3.5 g/dL or less) [odds ratio (OR) 22.1; 95%CI 2.9-169.9]; lower eGFR (50 mL/min or less) (OR 7.7; 95%CI 1.4-42.0); and PT-INR before tramadol coadministration (OR 38.2; 95%CI 3.7-397.6) were characteristic of the PT-INR increased group. These results suggest that tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin in patients with higher PT-INR, lower albumin levels and decreased renal function as the risk factors for this drug interaction.