著者
Eunok Lee Jun Miyazaki Shinya Yoshioka Hang Lee Shoei Sugita
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.59-64, 2012 (Released:2012-07-03)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
9

We investigated the origin of the iridescent violet-bluish feathers of the adult Jungle Crow, Corvus macrorhynchos, using microscopic and optical techniques. A single layer of melanin granules was found below the surface of the barbules in the feathers of male crows. Although the barbule microstructure was clearly sexually dimorphic, neither the appearance nor the optical measurements were notably different between the sexes, which indicated that the single layer of melanin granules did not contribute to the iridescent color of the feathers. We also found a thin layer, which we refer to as the epicuticle, at the surfaces of the barbules of both male and female feathers, indicating thin-film interference as the most likely cause of the iridescent color. We investigated this possibility by measuring reflection patterns and spectra. Our results suggest that the weak violet-bluish feather color of the feathers of the Jungle Crow is caused by thin-film interface due to the presence of an epicuticle on the feather barbules.
著者
Dean Portelli Nicholas Carlile
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.169-175, 2019 (Released:2019-07-29)
参考文献数
41

The Lord Howe Woodhen (Hypotaenidia sylvestris) is endemic to Lord Howe Island off the mid-east coast of Australia and came perilously close to extinction as a result of hunting pressure and introduced predators. A recovery program was implemented in the 1970s to reverse the decline of the species through eradicating introduced predators (pigs, cats and goats) and augmenting the population through an in situ captive-breeding program. In 1980, three wild breeding pairs were taken into captivity from Mount Gower. Over the four years of the captive-breeding program, 76 chicks were produced from the original founders and their progeny and an additional four chicks were artificially reared from eggs collected from a wild pair. Almost all woodhens were liberated across four release sites, but only 13% of released birds were resighted and numbers increased at only one of these sites and then declined. A captive-bred female that was released into the lowlands paired with a wild male (which had been temporarily held in captivity) and bred prolifically, leading to rapid population growth in the lowlands. The subpopulation on Mount Gower increased fivefold in the decade following the captive-breeding program, despite the removal of the three breeding pairs (which were released elsewhere) and receiving no augmentation from the captive-breeding program. The woodhen population continues to expand and it is likely the eradication of invasive rodents from Lord Howe Island during 2019 will facilitate further population growth.
著者
Ioannis Kontogeorgos Nikos Kiamos Patricia Montiel-Ruiz Elisavet Georgopoulou Moysis Mylonas Stavros M Xirouchakis
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.95-110, 2019 (Released:2019-01-29)
参考文献数
98
被引用文献数
1

The diet composition and dietary patterns of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus were studied in Mediterranean agrosystems in central Crete (Greece) over the winters of 2009–2015. Overall, 2,819 prey items were recovered from 1,207 pellets, belonging to six taxa of mammals, 22 taxa of birds and four taxa of insects. Small mammals were the most common prey species, accounting for 75.8% by frequency and 79.7% by biomass, followed by birds (23.2% and 20.1%); the latter being rather an island component compared to continental regions. The House Mouse Mus musculus was the most important prey species in the owl's diet (56.3%) ahead of the Wood Mouse apodemus sylvaticus (9.51%) and the Black Rat Rattus rattus (7.9%). The species proved to be a significant rodent predator in olive groves and vineyards during winter months, selecting Wood Mouse and young Black Rat more than expected. Long-eared Owl feeding ecology studies could lead to improved land management and agricultural practices in the rural landscapes of the Mediterranean.
著者
Kentaro Kazama
出版者
日本鳥学会
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.1, pp.1-2, 2015 (Released:2015-02-18)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
1
著者
Christoph Randler
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.1-14, 2016 (Released:2016-02-05)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
4

Birds of a wide range of species show characteristic movements of their tail, often called tail flicking, tail wagging or tail flashing. Tail flicking refers to vertical up-and-down movements of the tail, while tail flashing is defined as a horizontal movement, often including tail spreading. Here, I review proposed functions of such behaviour. Most relate to communication with conspecifics, predators or prey. Tail flashing may induce movement of the bird's prey that makes the prey more vulnerable to capture (‘prey-flushing’). Tail movements may signal to a predator that the signaller has detected it (‘perception advertisement’), or that the signaller is particularly alert or otherwise difficult to catch (‘quality advertisement’). Further, it may warn conspecifics of predators (‘alarm signal’), or it may advertise quality as a mate, signal social status, or aid in flock cohesion. This behaviour may, possibly, though it seems unlikely, represent a cue rather than a signal in that it benefits the receiver, but not the signaller. For each postulated function, I develop predictions stemming from that function, and interpret the available empirical evidence in the context of these predictions. I finish by synthesising our current state of knowledge and by identifying the future empirical studies that would most improve our understanding of this widespread but unjustly neglected avian behaviour.
著者
Alima DORZHIEVA Makoto NAKATA Keisuke TAKANO Youki FUJIHIKO Yasuo ITO Kiyoshi AKAHARA Katsuyoshi TACHIKAWA Yasuko ICHIMURA Yaeko FURUKAWA Hiroshi SATO Mikiko FUJISAWA Mika OKAMOTO Takehiko SHIMIZU
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.41-53, 2020 (Released:2020-01-30)
参考文献数
45

Changes in the timing of bird migration in spring and autumn in a coastal forest near the city of Niigata, central Honshu, Japan, were analyzed based on 27 years of bird-banding records. Half of the bird species studied, including all migratory types except residents, arrived or departed significantly earlier in spring due to an increase in spring temperatures. The rate of change we observed in spring migration timing due to changes in temperature was identical to or slightly greater than those reported in studies from other countries. The spring arrival of the Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina and the Japanese Thrush Turdus cardis, both long-distance summer migrants to the nearby mountains, became earlier (advanced), however, for reasons that remained unclear. Median capture date in autumn was significantly associated with year for five species. Of these, the median capture date of the Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus, a resident and wandering bird, and the Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala, a wandering bird, advanced annually, while for the Japanese Robin Luscinia akahige and two other species (all long-distance migrants), it was delayed. We hypothesize that forest succession from a simple pine forest to a mixed forest with well-developed sub-canopy and shrub layers may have strongly influenced the Japanese White-eye and the Black-faced Bunting due to changes in population structure in the study area, resulting in an earlier median autumn capture date. Forest succession may also have influenced the Japanese Robin's food resources, enabling it to stay longer in the study area and resulting in a delay in autumn departure date. Thus, changes in bird migration timing differ according to different environmental factors in spring and autumn.
著者
Peng XU Hao CHEN Duoying CUI Chunrong LI Guoyuan CHEN Yongqiang ZHAO Changhu LU
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.93-97, 2020 (Released:2020-01-30)
参考文献数
25

The Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis is an endangered species in East Asia. The western flyway population in China has been in steady decline in recent years because of the loss and deterioration of the natural wetland habitat it requires. To enhance this migratory Red-crowned Crane population, a project was designed to return captive Red-crowned Cranes to the wild in 2013 and 2015 in the Yancheng National Nature Reserve (YNNR). This reserve is the most important wintering site for the continental migratory population. The survival rate of introduced Red-crowned Cranes was 40%. However, aggregation of introduced and wild individuals was not observed. Introduced individuals did not pair with wild individuals nor did they migrate to breeding areas with them. They remained in the core zone of the YNNR over summer. Here, we report the first breeding of introduced Red-crowned Cranes in the YNNR in 2017 and 2018. Suitable rearing methods and the use of aircraft to inform them of the migration route are necessary. Further research is necessary to confirm the migratory status of the cranes that are reared in the reserve.
著者
Naoki Tomita Yasuko Iwami
出版者
日本鳥学会
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.95-98, 2016 (Released:2016-02-05)
参考文献数
20
被引用文献数
1

We observed three Sand Martin Riparia riparia repeatedly attempting to copulate with a dead bird lying face down on the ground, with its wings spread and lowered. One of the three remained on the ground close to the dead bird and guarded it against copulation from the other two birds. Then, the guarding bird itself attempted to copulate with the dead bird. Based on subsequent dissection the dead Sand Martin was identified as an adult male. Based on our observations, we propose that the observed homosexual necrophilia may be partly explained by the absence of sexual dimorphism in this species and the posture of the dead martin. We suggest that posture is an important trigger arousing male sex drive in a sexually monomorphic species.
著者
Cornelis SWENNEN Yat-tung YU
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.2, pp.119-124, 2004 (Released:2005-07-13)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
11 9

The bills of the spoonbills differ from the bills of most birds by being wider near the downward curved tip than in the middle, and having the mandibles dorso-ventrally extremely flattened. The mandibles have rounded lateral borders and lack cutting edges. The inward directed sides have a dense cover of thin parallel ridges on the distal parts and rows of teeth-like tubercles in the proximate parts. Their skeletons have numerous small pits in the distal parts especially along the edges and the insides. These pits are similar to the spaces for sensory corpuscles for touch in the bills of Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes) and are presumed to have the same function in spoonbills. The bill seems adapted for tactile feeding with lateral movements (sweeping) and for pecking, but not for probing into sediments. The wide gape with gular pouch allows the swallowing of rather large food items. The muscular layer of the gizzard is weakly developed and the gizzard is more a digestive pocket than a chewing organ such as occurs for grinding hard shells and grains in molluscivorous and granivorous birds. The long legs are laterally flattened, perhaps for minimising resistance and not-disturbing prey when walking in water during feeding; the partly webbed feet with long toes allow walking over soft mud bottoms.
著者
Jocelyn HUDON Keita OMOTE Miki MIZUSHIMA
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.99-106, 2020 (Released:2020-01-30)
参考文献数
39

Consumption of the berries of Morrow's Honeysuckle Lonicera morrowii has caused reddening of bird plumages in North America. We looked for examples of reddened feathers in Japanese birds, where the honeysuckle is native. We report the observation of legitimate reddened feathers in three Gray-headed Woodpeckers Picus canus, but are unsure whether the honeysuckle caused the color change in this instance. Morrow's Honeysuckle is uncommon in Japan, and birds rarely eat its berries. The availability of a wide variety of edible fruits may generally reduce the likelihood of avian plumage coloration being altered by shrubs such as the honeysuckle in Japan.
著者
Annette L. Fayet Masaki Shirai Sakiko Matsumoto Aimee Van Tatenhove Ken Yoda Akiko Shoji
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.189-195, 2019 (Released:2019-07-29)
参考文献数
37

To identify drivers of local variation in breeding success in colonial seabirds, we studied the role of breeding phenology and parental quality on the breeding performance of two neighbouring subcolonies of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas, with similar habitat but different success. Egg dimension and parental quality during incubation, but not phenology, predicted hatching success. Birds at the low-success colony laid smaller eggs, reared smaller chicks and neglected eggs more frequently, leaving them vulnerable to predation. Our findings suggest that local variation in breeding performance in this species arises from differences in breeding quality, perhaps driven by age or experience.
著者
Yulia Kolesnikova Meishi Liu Zujie Kang Alexey Opaev
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.17-26, 2019 (Released:2019-01-29)
参考文献数
46

In many songbirds, males vary aspects of their singing behaviour when engaged in territorial interactions. Song rate, song type switching rate, song matching, song overlapping, and the use of specific song or call types have all been proposed to be aggressive signals. It is not clear why such variability in aggressive signaling mechanisms exists among different species. We used a comparative approach to study how two Phylloscopus warbler species respond to playback-simulated territorial intrusion. We examined whether the spontaneous songs of Large-billed Phylloscopus magnirostris and Sulphur-breasted P. ricketii leaf-warblers differed from songs produced in response to playback. Song bouts were analysed by measuring 10–12 parameters, but we found no differences between spontaneous songs and playback responses in either species. All males clearly responded to playback by approaching the loudspeaker and flying around it. Large-billed Leaf-warblers produced ‘crackling' sounds in response to playback more frequently than during spontaneous singing, whereas the usually highly vocal Sulphur-breasted Leaf-warblers possibly (and surprisingly) did not use vocalizations (either songs or calls) to signal direct aggression. A comparison with other Phylloscopus species revealed that even closely related species (i.e. from a single genus) might use different strategies when responding to simulated territorial intrusion. The aggressive signalling strategy is therefore a labile trait that can potentially be exposed to fast evolutionary change.
著者
Munehiro Kitazawa Yuichi Yamaura Masayuki Senzaki Kazuhiro Kawamura Masashi Hanioka Futoshi Nakamura
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.3-16, 2019 (Released:2019-01-29)
参考文献数
58
被引用文献数
5

Populations of birds inhabiting wetlands and grasslands are decreasing globally due to farmland expansion and subsequent agricultural intensification. In addition to conserving natural habitats, managing cultivated farmland and abandoned farmland are likely to be important future conservation measures; however, their relative suitability as avian habitat remains understudied. In this study, we evaluated five habitat types (wetland, pasture, cropland, abandoned farmland, and solar power plant) for openland birds in an agricultural landscape in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. Abandoned farmlands had bird species richness and total bird abundance values similar to those of wetlands. These values were generally higher in abandoned farmlands and wetlands than in croplands, pastures, and solar power plants. The per pair reproductive success of Stejneger's Stonechat Saxicola stejnegeri and the amount of its prey (arthropods) did not differ among the five habitat types. Three species (Black-browed Reed Warbler Acrocephalus bistrigiceps, Common Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus, and Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone) arrived earlier in wetlands than in other habitat types. These results suggest that, although protecting the remaining wetlands is of prime importance for the conservation of openland birds in agricultural landscapes, valuing and managing abandoned farmlands would be a promising alternative.
著者
Hajime Matsubara
出版者
日本鳥学会
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.2, no.2, pp.103-111, 2003 (Released:2005-09-09)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
10 15

Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) and Carrion Crows (C. corone) are common species in Japan. They are closely related and considered ecological “generalists”. I carried out a comparative study on territory and habitat use of these crows in an area where they occur syntopically. The two species defended their territories both intra- and interspecifically. The feeding behavior on the ground and the microhabitats in the territories differed between the species. Jungle Crow territories contained more urban areas, and they foraged mainly at garbage stations. In contrast, Carrion Crows mainly foraged in natural or at least un-paved microhabitats and stayed longer on the ground. Differences in microhabitat use and feeding behavior seemed to contribute to ecological separation between the two species of crows.
著者
Tetsuo Shimada Naoya Hijikata Ken-ichi Tokita Kiyoshi Uchida Masayuki Kurechi Hitoshi Suginome Yumi Yamada Hiroyoshi Higuchi
出版者
日本鳥学会
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.37-45, 2016 (Released:2016-02-05)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
2

Japan hosts more than 40% population of Brent Goose Branta bernicla wintering in East Asia. We used satellite-tracking technology to monitor the seasonal movements and habitat usage of Brent Goose wintering in northern Japan. We marked five geese on the Oya sandy beach, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, on 21 January 2014. The geese utilized areas along the seacoast, especially concentrating at a small bay, close to the capture site. Most of the geese offshore were found at fishery rafts. No geese were found more than 2 km offshore or more than 6 km from the capture site along the seacoast. In early April, the geese left the southern Sanriku coast and moved up to eastern Hokkaido, crossing the sea directly or via the coastal areas of Iwate and Aomori Prefectures. The geese predominantly remained in the vicinity of the Veslovskiy Peninsula, Kunashiri (Kunashir) Island, while some were distributed along the northern coast of the Nemuro Peninsula. We identified eastern Hokkaido and Kunashiri Island as important stopover sites for Brent Goose wintering in Japan.
著者
Toshitaka N. Suzuki
出版者
日本鳥学会
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.2, pp.103-107, 2012 (Released:2012-12-28)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
9

Willow Tits Poecile montanus produce calls when they discover food sources. These calls function to attract conspecific and heterospecific individuals to the food site, thereby facilitating the formation of mixed-species foraging flocks. Since individuals may gain feeding/anti-predator benefits while foraging in mixed-species flocks, the ability of food discoverers to signal food presence would be of adaptive value. Here, I tested this idea by comparing the calls of Willow Tits between food and non-food contexts. Field observations at artificial feeders showed that Willow Tits typically produce calls composed of a single note type (tää note) when discovering food supplies, whereas they usually combine two distinct note types (introductory and tää notes) when moving through forests without a food source. These results indicate that Willow Tits use subtle variation in the note composition of calls to discriminate between food and non-food contexts, and this may serve to regulate the movements and cohesion of mixed-species flocks.
著者
Akira Chiba Rhyuhei Honma
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.9, no.2, pp.123-130, 2010-12-25 (Released:2010-12-25)
参考文献数
23

In the course of our fieldwork study at Hyo-ko Waterfowl Park, a local preserve in Niigata Prefecture, Japan, we found a male presumed wild hybrid between a Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope and a Falcated Duck A. falcata in 2007; another or possibly the same individual was found again in 2009. The bird shared morphological traits with both species, although it was biased toward the Falcated Duck. Occasionally, the bird joined courting parties of Eurasian Wigeon, followed Wigeon females or competed with Wigeon males, and also showed courtship displays, e.g. Grunt-whistle, Head-up-tail-up, and Burping call, all of which were more like those of the Falcated Duck than those of the Eurasian Wigeon. Thus, the hybrid bird was sexually active to a considerable extent, but it remains unknown whether or not it actually formed a pair bond with a female of either parent species.
著者
Takashi Yamamoto Hiroyoshi Kohno Akira Mizutani Hanako Sato Hiroki Yamagishi Yutaka Fujii Miku Murakoshi Ken Yoda
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.17-22, 2017 (Released:2017-03-01)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
5

There is increasing evidence showing that wind velocity affects the flight and foraging behavior of seabirds; however, few studies have examined these effects on seabirds inhabiting tropical oceans where lighter wind conditions usually prevail. The Brown Booby Sula leucogaster is an example of a tropical seabird with relatively low wing loading; strong wind conditions may be expected to impede the stability of their flight. We examined how different wind conditions affected the duration and flying behavior of Brown Booby fledglings during foraging trips by means of direct observation of nest attendance and by attaching video loggers to birds. The duration of foraging trips by fledglings decreased with increasing wind speed, and during flight, the body rotation of fledglings became greater with increasing wind speed. As expected, fledglings were buffeted by strong winds due to their relative inexperience in flight combined with their low wing loading. Fledglings were probably forced to flap against strong winds in order to adjust the stability of their bodies, offsetting the efficient use of wind for gliding. Furthermore, the height at which fledglings flew fluctuated more at higher wind velocities, which may have constrained their detection and capture of prey. In conclusion, our results indicate that the aerodynamic performance of Brown Booby fledglings is impaired by strong wind conditions, leading to poor flight stability and potentially reduced prey detection.
著者
Ivana NOVCIC
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.107-113, 2020 (Released:2020-01-30)
参考文献数
57

An important property of a foraging group is its density, particularly measured as nearest-neighbor distance. This study examined whether distance to the nearest neighbor changes over short time intervals in two fast-moving foragers, Dunlin Calidris alpina and Semipalmated Sandpiper C. pusilla, while at a spring stopover site in Delaware Bay, USA. For 181 focal individuals, nearest-neighbor distance was recorded in 5-s intervals for 60 seconds. For each focal individual, measured values were compared with those recorded at the beginning and end of observations, with the mean of values recorded at the beginning and end of observations, and with the mean of values recorded at the beginning, middle and end of observations. The results of this study indicate that single-point estimates of nearest-neighbor distance may not be appropriate in fast-moving foragers such as sandpipers.