著者
仁平 義明
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
日本鳥学会誌 (ISSN:0913400X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.44, no.1, pp.21-35, 1995-04-25 (Released:2007-09-28)
参考文献数
21
被引用文献数
5 8

1) ハシボソガラスが自動車をクルミ割りに利用する行動について長期的な観察を行なった2) 信号待ちで停車した自動車の車輪の前にクルミを置き,車がひいたクルミを摂食する事例が頻繁に観察された.このことは,車利用行動が偶然なものではなく意図的な行動であることを疑問の余地がな示していた3) 自動車利用によるクルミ割り行動は,多くの変数(クルミの調達法,クルミの特性,クルミのセッティング方法,時刻,場所,他の個体の存在,待ち行動打ち切りの臨界時間,置き直し行動,食行動)から構成されるバリエーションの多い行動であることが確認された4) 自動車利用行動は,上空から投下する方法では割れないクルミを処理するたあの新たな手段として生まれたものであると考えられた
著者
Eunok Lee Jun Miyazaki Shinya Yoshioka Hang Lee Shoei Sugita
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.11, no.1, pp.59-64, 2012 (Released:2012-07-03)
参考文献数
18
被引用文献数
9

We investigated the origin of the iridescent violet-bluish feathers of the adult Jungle Crow, Corvus macrorhynchos, using microscopic and optical techniques. A single layer of melanin granules was found below the surface of the barbules in the feathers of male crows. Although the barbule microstructure was clearly sexually dimorphic, neither the appearance nor the optical measurements were notably different between the sexes, which indicated that the single layer of melanin granules did not contribute to the iridescent color of the feathers. We also found a thin layer, which we refer to as the epicuticle, at the surfaces of the barbules of both male and female feathers, indicating thin-film interference as the most likely cause of the iridescent color. We investigated this possibility by measuring reflection patterns and spectra. Our results suggest that the weak violet-bluish feather color of the feathers of the Jungle Crow is caused by thin-film interface due to the presence of an epicuticle on the feather barbules.
著者
松岡 茂
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
日本鳥学会誌 (ISSN:0913400X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.43, no.1, pp.19-28, 1994-07-25 (Released:2007-09-28)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1

地上で採食しているヒヨドリに人間が接近して行って,ヒヨドリの群れが飛び立ったときの,人間とヒヨドリの群れとの距離(飛び立ち距離:FLD)と群れサイズ(SIZE)との関係を野外で調査した.ヒヨドリの群れサイズが大きくなるにつれ,飛び立ち距離が大きくなった.回帰式は,FLD=6.9×ln(SIZE)+26.1であった.ヒヨドリの群れサイズの増加に伴い,群れの広がり(RD)も増加した.回帰式は,RD=1.3×ln(SIZE)-1.1であった.しかし,飛び立ち距離の増加は,群れの広がりの増加だけでは説明できなかった.1羽のヒヨドリの飛び立ち距離の分布をもとに,もっとも神経質な個体の飛び立ち距離が群れの飛び立ち距離を決定するという仮定で,シミュレーションを行なったところ,回帰式SFLD=3.6×ln(SIZE)+28.2を得た.これは,実際のヒヨドリの飛び立ち距離の回帰式の傾きとは有意に異なっていた.実際の群れの飛び立ち距離とシミュレーションの結果との違いを神経質な個体の行動から考察を行なった,その結果,神経質な個体は,単独あるいは小数羽の群れに出現する頻度が低いという予想を得た.
著者
Dean Portelli Nicholas Carlile
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.169-175, 2019 (Released:2019-07-29)
参考文献数
41

The Lord Howe Woodhen (Hypotaenidia sylvestris) is endemic to Lord Howe Island off the mid-east coast of Australia and came perilously close to extinction as a result of hunting pressure and introduced predators. A recovery program was implemented in the 1970s to reverse the decline of the species through eradicating introduced predators (pigs, cats and goats) and augmenting the population through an in situ captive-breeding program. In 1980, three wild breeding pairs were taken into captivity from Mount Gower. Over the four years of the captive-breeding program, 76 chicks were produced from the original founders and their progeny and an additional four chicks were artificially reared from eggs collected from a wild pair. Almost all woodhens were liberated across four release sites, but only 13% of released birds were resighted and numbers increased at only one of these sites and then declined. A captive-bred female that was released into the lowlands paired with a wild male (which had been temporarily held in captivity) and bred prolifically, leading to rapid population growth in the lowlands. The subpopulation on Mount Gower increased fivefold in the decade following the captive-breeding program, despite the removal of the three breeding pairs (which were released elsewhere) and receiving no augmentation from the captive-breeding program. The woodhen population continues to expand and it is likely the eradication of invasive rodents from Lord Howe Island during 2019 will facilitate further population growth.
著者
鮫島 正道 大塚 閏一
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
(ISSN:00409480)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.33, no.1, pp.29-38, 1984-08-25 (Released:2007-09-28)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
1 1

18目42科105属147種(亜種を含む)353個体の日本産および外国産の成鳥と推定した鳥類の晒骨標本を作成し,胸椎について胸椎数とnotariumの形成様式を検索した.(1)胸椎は6-12個と変異に富んでいた.椎骨数は同一科内,同一種内でも変異が大きかった.(2)Notariumは9目12科42種103個体の鳥類に存在した.(3)Notarium の存否,それを形成する胸椎の数や位置,胸椎の synsacrum への参加数は胸椎数と同様に同一科内,同一種内においても変異が大きかった.(4)Notarium は飛翔力の弱いキジ目の全種に存在する一方ゴハト科,ハヤブサ科,ツル科そしてフラミンゴ科などにも存在するので notarium の存否を飛翔と短絡的に関係づけることはできないと推察された.
著者
Ioannis Kontogeorgos Nikos Kiamos Patricia Montiel-Ruiz Elisavet Georgopoulou Moysis Mylonas Stavros M Xirouchakis
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.95-110, 2019 (Released:2019-01-29)
参考文献数
98
被引用文献数
1

The diet composition and dietary patterns of the Long-eared Owl Asio otus were studied in Mediterranean agrosystems in central Crete (Greece) over the winters of 2009–2015. Overall, 2,819 prey items were recovered from 1,207 pellets, belonging to six taxa of mammals, 22 taxa of birds and four taxa of insects. Small mammals were the most common prey species, accounting for 75.8% by frequency and 79.7% by biomass, followed by birds (23.2% and 20.1%); the latter being rather an island component compared to continental regions. The House Mouse Mus musculus was the most important prey species in the owl's diet (56.3%) ahead of the Wood Mouse apodemus sylvaticus (9.51%) and the Black Rat Rattus rattus (7.9%). The species proved to be a significant rodent predator in olive groves and vineyards during winter months, selecting Wood Mouse and young Black Rat more than expected. Long-eared Owl feeding ecology studies could lead to improved land management and agricultural practices in the rural landscapes of the Mediterranean.
著者
Christoph Randler
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.1, pp.1-14, 2016 (Released:2016-02-05)
参考文献数
49
被引用文献数
4

Birds of a wide range of species show characteristic movements of their tail, often called tail flicking, tail wagging or tail flashing. Tail flicking refers to vertical up-and-down movements of the tail, while tail flashing is defined as a horizontal movement, often including tail spreading. Here, I review proposed functions of such behaviour. Most relate to communication with conspecifics, predators or prey. Tail flashing may induce movement of the bird's prey that makes the prey more vulnerable to capture (‘prey-flushing’). Tail movements may signal to a predator that the signaller has detected it (‘perception advertisement’), or that the signaller is particularly alert or otherwise difficult to catch (‘quality advertisement’). Further, it may warn conspecifics of predators (‘alarm signal’), or it may advertise quality as a mate, signal social status, or aid in flock cohesion. This behaviour may, possibly, though it seems unlikely, represent a cue rather than a signal in that it benefits the receiver, but not the signaller. For each postulated function, I develop predictions stemming from that function, and interpret the available empirical evidence in the context of these predictions. I finish by synthesising our current state of knowledge and by identifying the future empirical studies that would most improve our understanding of this widespread but unjustly neglected avian behaviour.
著者
Alima DORZHIEVA Makoto NAKATA Keisuke TAKANO Youki FUJIHIKO Yasuo ITO Kiyoshi AKAHARA Katsuyoshi TACHIKAWA Yasuko ICHIMURA Yaeko FURUKAWA Hiroshi SATO Mikiko FUJISAWA Mika OKAMOTO Takehiko SHIMIZU
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.41-53, 2020 (Released:2020-01-30)
参考文献数
45

Changes in the timing of bird migration in spring and autumn in a coastal forest near the city of Niigata, central Honshu, Japan, were analyzed based on 27 years of bird-banding records. Half of the bird species studied, including all migratory types except residents, arrived or departed significantly earlier in spring due to an increase in spring temperatures. The rate of change we observed in spring migration timing due to changes in temperature was identical to or slightly greater than those reported in studies from other countries. The spring arrival of the Narcissus Flycatcher Ficedula narcissina and the Japanese Thrush Turdus cardis, both long-distance summer migrants to the nearby mountains, became earlier (advanced), however, for reasons that remained unclear. Median capture date in autumn was significantly associated with year for five species. Of these, the median capture date of the Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus, a resident and wandering bird, and the Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala, a wandering bird, advanced annually, while for the Japanese Robin Luscinia akahige and two other species (all long-distance migrants), it was delayed. We hypothesize that forest succession from a simple pine forest to a mixed forest with well-developed sub-canopy and shrub layers may have strongly influenced the Japanese White-eye and the Black-faced Bunting due to changes in population structure in the study area, resulting in an earlier median autumn capture date. Forest succession may also have influenced the Japanese Robin's food resources, enabling it to stay longer in the study area and resulting in a delay in autumn departure date. Thus, changes in bird migration timing differ according to different environmental factors in spring and autumn.
著者
釜沢 忠夫
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
(ISSN:00409480)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.68, pp.52-53, 1957-02-28 (Released:2009-02-26)

The author made a close observation on the mechanism of the bill and the tongue in captive Crossbills, Loxia curvirostra japonica Ridgway. The bill helps the feet in their climing and acrobatic behavior on the branch. To eat pine-cone seeds, the bill half-opened to be not crossed, and they insert it between the scales, closing it to be crossed to push asaid them. The movement of the tongue was also examined closely. It is put out very fast (about 5 times a second) and is pulled back with a pine-cone seed between the 'tip-tongue' and the 'root', i. e. at the notched end of the former; and the 'wing' of the seed is held sideway to be cut off by the bill. The author also reports of their 'hanging-sleep' under pine-tree branch in wild and captive birds.
著者
川口 敏 山本 貴仁
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
日本鳥学会誌 (ISSN:0913400X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.1, pp.29-31, 2003 (Released:2007-09-28)
参考文献数
7
被引用文献数
8 6 2

Sixty seven pellets of Long-eared Owls, Asio otus, were collected in a village, Ehime Prefecture, during 19February 2001to 6 April 2001. The bones of 164 Mus musculus, ten Micromys minutus, two Apodemus speciosus, two Rattus sp., seventeen Pipistrellus abramus, two Myotis macrodactylus, twelve Crocidura dsinezumi and a bird were found in the pellets. M. minutus, P. abramus, M. macrodactylus and C. dsinezumi were new records in diet of the Long-eared owls.
著者
Peng XU Hao CHEN Duoying CUI Chunrong LI Guoyuan CHEN Yongqiang ZHAO Changhu LU
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.93-97, 2020 (Released:2020-01-30)
参考文献数
25

The Red-crowned Crane Grus japonensis is an endangered species in East Asia. The western flyway population in China has been in steady decline in recent years because of the loss and deterioration of the natural wetland habitat it requires. To enhance this migratory Red-crowned Crane population, a project was designed to return captive Red-crowned Cranes to the wild in 2013 and 2015 in the Yancheng National Nature Reserve (YNNR). This reserve is the most important wintering site for the continental migratory population. The survival rate of introduced Red-crowned Cranes was 40%. However, aggregation of introduced and wild individuals was not observed. Introduced individuals did not pair with wild individuals nor did they migrate to breeding areas with them. They remained in the core zone of the YNNR over summer. Here, we report the first breeding of introduced Red-crowned Cranes in the YNNR in 2017 and 2018. Suitable rearing methods and the use of aircraft to inform them of the migration route are necessary. Further research is necessary to confirm the migratory status of the cranes that are reared in the reserve.
著者
Cornelis SWENNEN Yat-tung YU
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.3, no.2, pp.119-124, 2004 (Released:2005-07-13)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
11 9

The bills of the spoonbills differ from the bills of most birds by being wider near the downward curved tip than in the middle, and having the mandibles dorso-ventrally extremely flattened. The mandibles have rounded lateral borders and lack cutting edges. The inward directed sides have a dense cover of thin parallel ridges on the distal parts and rows of teeth-like tubercles in the proximate parts. Their skeletons have numerous small pits in the distal parts especially along the edges and the insides. These pits are similar to the spaces for sensory corpuscles for touch in the bills of Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes) and are presumed to have the same function in spoonbills. The bill seems adapted for tactile feeding with lateral movements (sweeping) and for pecking, but not for probing into sediments. The wide gape with gular pouch allows the swallowing of rather large food items. The muscular layer of the gizzard is weakly developed and the gizzard is more a digestive pocket than a chewing organ such as occurs for grinding hard shells and grains in molluscivorous and granivorous birds. The long legs are laterally flattened, perhaps for minimising resistance and not-disturbing prey when walking in water during feeding; the partly webbed feet with long toes allow walking over soft mud bottoms.
著者
Jocelyn HUDON Keita OMOTE Miki MIZUSHIMA
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.19, no.1, pp.99-106, 2020 (Released:2020-01-30)
参考文献数
39

Consumption of the berries of Morrow's Honeysuckle Lonicera morrowii has caused reddening of bird plumages in North America. We looked for examples of reddened feathers in Japanese birds, where the honeysuckle is native. We report the observation of legitimate reddened feathers in three Gray-headed Woodpeckers Picus canus, but are unsure whether the honeysuckle caused the color change in this instance. Morrow's Honeysuckle is uncommon in Japan, and birds rarely eat its berries. The availability of a wide variety of edible fruits may generally reduce the likelihood of avian plumage coloration being altered by shrubs such as the honeysuckle in Japan.
著者
Annette L. Fayet Masaki Shirai Sakiko Matsumoto Aimee Van Tatenhove Ken Yoda Akiko Shoji
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.2, pp.189-195, 2019 (Released:2019-07-29)
参考文献数
37

To identify drivers of local variation in breeding success in colonial seabirds, we studied the role of breeding phenology and parental quality on the breeding performance of two neighbouring subcolonies of Streaked Shearwaters Calonectris leucomelas, with similar habitat but different success. Egg dimension and parental quality during incubation, but not phenology, predicted hatching success. Birds at the low-success colony laid smaller eggs, reared smaller chicks and neglected eggs more frequently, leaving them vulnerable to predation. Our findings suggest that local variation in breeding performance in this species arises from differences in breeding quality, perhaps driven by age or experience.
著者
Yulia Kolesnikova Meishi Liu Zujie Kang Alexey Opaev
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
ORNITHOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ISSN:13470558)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.18, no.1, pp.17-26, 2019 (Released:2019-01-29)
参考文献数
46

In many songbirds, males vary aspects of their singing behaviour when engaged in territorial interactions. Song rate, song type switching rate, song matching, song overlapping, and the use of specific song or call types have all been proposed to be aggressive signals. It is not clear why such variability in aggressive signaling mechanisms exists among different species. We used a comparative approach to study how two Phylloscopus warbler species respond to playback-simulated territorial intrusion. We examined whether the spontaneous songs of Large-billed Phylloscopus magnirostris and Sulphur-breasted P. ricketii leaf-warblers differed from songs produced in response to playback. Song bouts were analysed by measuring 10–12 parameters, but we found no differences between spontaneous songs and playback responses in either species. All males clearly responded to playback by approaching the loudspeaker and flying around it. Large-billed Leaf-warblers produced ‘crackling' sounds in response to playback more frequently than during spontaneous singing, whereas the usually highly vocal Sulphur-breasted Leaf-warblers possibly (and surprisingly) did not use vocalizations (either songs or calls) to signal direct aggression. A comparison with other Phylloscopus species revealed that even closely related species (i.e. from a single genus) might use different strategies when responding to simulated territorial intrusion. The aggressive signalling strategy is therefore a labile trait that can potentially be exposed to fast evolutionary change.
著者
呉地 正行 横田 義雄 大津 真理子
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
(ISSN:00409480)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.32, no.2-3, pp.95-108, 1983-10-25 (Released:2007-09-28)
参考文献数
6
被引用文献数
2 2

(1)日本に渡来するヒシクイ Anser fabalis の各個体群の亜種調査を行うために,ヒシクイ A. f. serrirostris とオオヒシクイ A. f. middendorfi の野外識別の可能性を検討した.(2)この2亜種は形態的相違が顕著で,生態的にも異なる点が多く,野外観察でも識別可能である.至近距離の場合は嘴の形態のみで,遠距離(約1km)の場合でも25倍の望遠鏡を用いれば,嘴峰/頭長比〓1,嘴峰/嘴高(基部)比〓2,頭•嘴部全体の形態の相違,などの形態的比較や,鳴き声の相違などの生態的比較により亜種を識別できる.(3)野外識別法により得られた結果と,同一地域で採取された標本調査の結果は,よく一致した. 例えば,宮城県下の個体群は A. f. serrirostris が,また新潟県下のものは A. f. middendorfi が大多数を占めるという結果が,両方法から得られた.
著者
山田 清
出版者
The Ornithological Society of Japan
雑誌
日本鳥学会誌 (ISSN:0913400X)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.61-75, 1994-03-25 (Released:2007-09-28)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
6 6

1990•1991の両年に新潟県中之島町のハス田と同加茂市の小河川でコサギなわばり性と採食行動について調査した.1)ハス田では移動性の低いドジョウが最も重要な餌だった(湿重量比で80.8%).2)河川では移動性の低いアメリカザリガニ•ドジョウ(40.0%),移動性の高い遊泳魚(59.5%)とも多く捕食されていて餌の構成が多様だった.3)採食方法は餌の発見方法(待ち伏せ法と歩行法)と捕獲のテクニック(追跡型と非追跡型)の2段階に分け,その組合せによって分類することができた.4)餌と用いられる採食方法は明確に対応していた.待ち伏せ法は,主に大型の遊泳魚と対応していた.歩行法のうち追跡型の方法には中型の遊泳魚が,非追跡型の方法には移動性の低いザリガニ•ドジョウまたは小型の魚類がそれぞれ対応していた.5)ハス田では,境界が明瞭な採食なわばりが特定の場所で長期に渡って維持されていた.これをハス田タイプのなわばりと呼んだ.6)河川では,待ち伏せ法で採食する個体が自分の周囲のごく狭い範囲から他個体を排除した.河川でのなわばりの範囲は採食個体の移動にともなって移動し,これを河川タイプのなわばりと呼んだ.7)2つの環境で見られた採食なわばりについて餌および採食環境と関連させて考察した.