著者
川名 雄一郎 KAWANA Yuichiro
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, no.3, pp.41-52, 2020-03

The remarkable flourishing of phrenology, a morphological study of brain initially conceived by a German neuroanatomist, Franz Joseph Gall in the 1790s, became the subject of much scholarly attention in early nineteenth-century Britain, and especially in Edinburgh, where the dispute about phrenology commenced with Thomas Brown's attack on Gall which appeared as early as 1803, and was followed by a number of other criticisms, including John Gordon's severe critique of Johann Gaspar Spurzheim in 1815, Francis Jeffrey's scathing article on George Combe's work in 1826, and William Hamilton's series of criticisms in the 1820s levelled against anatomical knowledge on which phrenology was founded. This article examines the nature of these anti-phrenological arguments, pointing out the intellectual milieu of Edinburgh at the turn of the nineteenth century, in which two learning and teaching traditions, namely mental philosophy (common sense philosophy originated in the works of Thomas Reid and developed by Dugald Stewart and Thomas Brown) and anatomy (thanks to the Monro family and those involved in the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh), were established.
著者
大塚 雄太 OTSUKA Yuta
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.4, pp.61-75, 2015-03

This paper focuses on the later thought of Justus Möser (1720-1794) and its meaning in the social context of the eighteenth century. Through our investigation, we discover a practical intention in his thought and unearth his original position in the modern German history of ideas. Generally, though especially in Japan, the modern German history of ideas is a genealogy of renowned philosophers, including Kant, Fichte, and Hegel; few places are reserved for Möser. However, the modern German history of ideas is far more complex than the history of philosophy allows, because it developed during social upheaval, particularly the French Revolution. Discussions concerning theory and practice show the relation between societal trends and thought. Kant's paper was the epicenter of such discussions in the late eighteenth century, drawing responses from many thinkers, including Möser, who wrote his theory and practice from a critical viewpoint of Kant's theoretical and abstract argument. We clarify Möser's concrete logic in his historicism, which is based on facts from society and history, and contrast it with Kant's argument. Beyond traditional evaluations of Möser as a conservative or a political romanticist, this paper portrays him as an Enlightenment thinker for society.
著者
園田 正 SONODA Tadashi
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.4, pp.47-53, 2016-03-25

Agricultural household models (AHMs) were proposed as a basic model to study joint determination of production organization and consumption choice of farm households. This study reviews the literature of AHMs and summarizes three representative studies to reveal features and implications of recent studies. Recent studies of AHMs introduce "full income" from theory of home production and "shadow prices" which equate the demand and supply of goods and services within the household. Introduction of these concepts allows theoretical analysis of AHMs to conform to standard microeconomics analysis. Furthermore, recent studies of AHMs use "non-separable" models to emphasize relevance of the consumption side of AHMs. Imperfect markets and transactions costs are particularly important for farm households in developing countries and cause "non-separability", namely dependence of their production organization on their consumption choice. Consequently, test of the "separability" and analysis of this dependence become the central concern of recent studies. Allowing for greater availability of microdata on farm households and recent development of microeconometrics, I believe that AHMs will still remain useful tools for studying the behavior of farm households.
著者
平川 均 Hirakawa Hitoshi
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.4, pp.1-24, 2008-03

In today's Japan, the name of Dr. Morinosuke Kajima, a former president of a big construction company, Kajima Corporation, is famous for representing businessman in the Showa Period, as well as for being a politician and diplomatic scientist. However, very few people know that Dr. Kajima had been a proponent of Pan-Asianism for the per-war time beginning form the second half of the 1920s. Many people would be surprised at the fact that he put up a monument in the peak build in his parent's home on which his own aspiration, "My biggest desire is to realize Pan Asia someday" was inscribed in 1973.However, his desire was surely to create Pan-Asia, a kind of East Asia community. His active social activities like the establishing of a publishing company and two institutes for diplomatic and peace studies, and creating the Kajima Peace Award and so froth were deeply related to his philosophy of Pan-Asianism.What actually was his Pan-Asianism? How did his philosophy pass through the trial of the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere of the second world war? These question very soon appear in our minds.In this paper, the author considers Dr. M. Kajima's Pan-Asianism in three periods (i.e., in the pre-wartime, wartime, and post-wartime), explain fundamental structure of his idea, and try to answer the about question.Quite recantly, East Asian people have been actively discussing an East Asian community, and Dr. Majima's Pan-Asianism contains some suggestion about it.
著者
YAMADA Moronari 山田 基成
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.64, no.4, pp.1-12, 2017-03-25 (Released:2017-03-25)
著者
岸川 富士夫 KISHIKAWA Fujio
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.62, no.4, pp.27-41, 2015-03-25 (Released:2015-04-02)

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of Max Adler's thought that influenced Jürgen Habermas. Adler, an Austro-Marxist, developed a Kantian version of Marxism: this paper analyses how Adler reconstituted Marxist social science based on Kant's transcendental philosophy in his work Causality and Teleology (1904). Adler constructed the concept of the transcendental-social to tie together Kant and Marx. According to Adler, the idea that the individual consciousness is transcendentally socialized is shown in Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Furthermore, relying on Kant's theory on the transcendental relation between the individual and society, Adler analysed Marx's theory of fetishism in Capital, and discovered that the central element of Marx's social science is the concept of "people realizing socialization within themselves". This paper concludes that what Adler's Kantian version of Marxism asserted is that historical materialism was something that viewed the historical development of the transcendental-social in its lawlike qualities.
著者
船橋 伸一 FUNABASHI Shinichi
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.1, pp.67-84, 2007-06-30

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors that affect wages in Japan. It is widely believed that wages vary in accordance with educational backgrounds, the speed of promotion, a scale of a company, a type of industry, lengh of service, age and so on. However, this has not been rigorously tested using data. In order to clarify these relationships, I used the data from “Investigation of workers in 2000” by Recruit Research. As it contains personal data of the staff, it is possible to indentify the relationships among them. When the data was analyzed, it was found that a university graduate got a high wage even though I controlled various attributes. It was because of the speed of promotion and the size of the company. The gap was brought about by the quality of the training in the company and promotion as a result. It was also found that there was no diffrerence in pay gaps or the speed of promotion between a university graduate of a scientific field (Biology, engineering, mathematics and so on) and one of liberal arts (Law, economics, literature and so on).
著者
藤田 菜々子 FUJITA Nanako
出版者
名古屋大学大学院経済学研究科
雑誌
経済科学 (ISSN:00229725)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.63-81, 2003-09-30 (Released:2008-12-11)

There is a big problem in the study for Gunnar Myrdal. While Myrdal told that he had an “inner consistency” among his various studies and had built up an intellectual “edifice” there, no one has shown the integrated figure of Myrdal, especially from the point of view of his methodology and theoretical thinking. This paper focuses on Myrdal’s theory of circular and cumulative causation : CC theory. At the basis of CC theory, there is a methodology of “explicit value premises”. The relationship between “explicit value premises” and CC theory enables us to better understand the practical meaning of Myrdal’s economics. Myrdal insisted that the important role of economics is to be practical. Myrdal evaluates the power of psychological and institutional elements in the process of social change. He is against such a position that there is only one standard of value, for example, utility. He didn’t expect a general and abstract theory, rather he did expect real and practical theories. The conclusion is that, first, we can understand the integrated figure of Myrdal only from the CC theory. Second, there is the need for re-evaluation Myrdal’s economics.