著者
Issei KATO Yuta MASUDA Kei NAGASHIMA
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-0072, (Released:2021-08-20)
被引用文献数
1

Surgical masks are widely used for the prevention of respiratory infections. However, the risk of heat stroke during intense work or exercise in hot and humid environments is a concern. This study aimed to examine whether wearing surgical masks increases the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in such environments. Twelve participants conducted treadmill exercise for 30 min at 6 km/h, with 5% slope, 35°C ambient temperature, and 65% relative humidity, while wearing or not a surgical mask (mask and control trials, respectively). Rectal temperature (Trec), ear canal temperature (Tear), and mean skin temperature (mean Tskin) were assessed. Skin temperature and humidity of the perioral area of the face (Tface and RHface) were also estimated. Thermal sensation and discomfort, sensation of humidity, fatigue, and thirst were rated using the visual analogue scale. Trec, Tear, mean Tskin, and Tface increased during the exercise, without any difference between the two trials. RHface during the exercise was greater in the mask trial. The psychological ratings increased during the exercise, without any difference between the two trials. These results suggest that wearing surgical masks does not increase the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in moist heat.
著者
Issei KATO Yuta MASUDA Kei NAGASHIMA
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.5, pp.325-333, 2021-08-18 (Released:2021-10-05)
被引用文献数
1

Surgical masks are widely used for the prevention of respiratory infections. However, the risk of heat stroke during intense work or exercise in hot and humid environment is a concern. This study aimed to examine whether wearing a surgical mask increases the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in such environment. Twelve participants conducted treadmill exercise for 30 min at 6 km/h, with 5% slope, 35°C ambient temperature, and 65% relative humidity, while wearing or not a surgical mask (mask and control trials, respectively). Rectal temperature (Trec), ear canal temperature (Tear), and mean skin temperature (mean Tskin) were assessed. Skin temperature and humidity of the perioral area of the face (Tface and RHface) were also estimated. Thermal sensation and discomfort, sensation of humidity, fatigue, and thirst were rated using the visual analogue scale. Trec, Tear, mean Tskin, and Tface increased during the exercise, without any difference between the two trials. RHface during the exercise was greater in the mask trial. Hot sensation was greater in the mask trial, but no influence on fatigue and thirst was found. These results suggest that wearing a surgical mask does not increase the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in moist heat.
著者
Jan DE JONGE
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0097, (Released:2019-08-17)
被引用文献数
8

Recovery from work today seems to be crucial for health care employees’ health, so it is important to uncover ways how to facilitate and improve adequate recovery from work. Focusing on the recovery concept of detachment from work, this study investigated associations between detachment after work and during work breaks and individual health among health care employees from a general hospital in the Netherlands. An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted comprising a sample of 368 health care employees of different departments. Controlling for demographics in hierarchical regression analyses, results showed that when health care employees experienced more cognitive detachment after work, they reported less concentration problems. Second, when employees experienced more emotional detachment after work, they reported less feelings of emotional exhaustion, less depressive feelings, and less sleep problems. Finally, in case employees experienced more physical detachment after work, they reported less concentration problems, less feelings of emotional exhaustion, less sleep problems and less physical health problems. No significant associations were found for detachment during work breaks. In conclusion, findings add to current recovery research showing that detachment after work is an important predictor for health care employees’ health.
著者
Bożena WIELGOSZEWSKA Charlotte BOOTH Michael J GREEN Olivia KL HAMILTON Jacques WELS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022-0081, (Released:2022-05-19)

Little is known about the relationship between homeworking and mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic and how it might differ by keyworker status. To understand this relationship, we use longitudinal data collected over three time points during the pandemic from three British cohort studies born in 1958 (National Child Development Study), 1970 (British Cohort Study) and 1989–90 (Next Step) as well as from a population-based study stratified by four age groups (Understanding Society). We estimate the association between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and psychological distress and homeworking by key worker status using mixed effects models with maximum likelihood estimation to account for repeated measurements across the pandemic, allowing intercepts to vary across individuals after controlling for a set of covariates including pre-pandemic home working propensities and loneliness. Results show that key workers working from home showed the greatest decline in mental health outcomes relative to other groups. Pre-pandemic homeworking did not significantly change the nature of such a relationship and loneliness slightly attenuated some of the effects. Finally, mental health outcomes varied across age-groups and time points. The discussion emphasises the need to pay attention to key workers when assessing the relationship between mental health and homeworking.
著者
Michiko NOHARA Mikio MOMOEDA Toshiro KUBOTA Masao NAKABAYASHI
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.228-234, 2011 (Released:2011-04-14)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
27 48

Women’s employment in Japan has increased substantially in recent decades, however little large scale research has been done on the impact of various types of working conditions on women’s health. The aim of this study was to assess the menstrual cycle and menstrual pain problems of female workers and to investigate the factors that relate to them. The questionnaire was distributed to 8,150 women and 2,166 responded (26.6%). An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to get information about demographics, menstrual cycle status, the degree of menstrual pain, and employment and environmental factors. Irregular cycle menstruation was experienced in 17.1% of responded workers. We discovered the relationship between irregular menstrual cycles and stress, smell of cigarettes, age and smoking habits. Some degree of menstrual pain was experienced in 77.6% of responded workers. This study showed the relationship between menstrual pain and stress, high temperature and humidity, age, BMI, and number of births. In conclusion, we found that stress is thought to be an important factor related with menstrual cycle irregularities and menstrual pain among Japanese female workers.
著者
Päivi VANTTOLA Mikko HÄRMÄ Christer HUBLIN Katriina VIITASALO Mikael SALLINEN Jussi VIRKKALA Sampsa PUTTONEN
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-0215, (Released:2022-02-15)

In shift work disorder (SWD), disturbed sleep acutely impairs employees’ recovery, but little attention has been paid to sleep during longer recovery periods. We examined how holidays affect self-estimated sleep length, sleep debt, and recovery in cases of SWD. Twenty-one shift workers with questionnaire-based SWD and nine reference cases without SWD symptoms completed a questionnaire on recovery and sleep need. They also reported sleep length on two separate occasions: during a work period and after ≥ 2 weeks of holidays. Sleep debt was calculated by subtracting sleep length from sleep need. We used parametric tests to compare the groups and the periods. The groups reported shorter sleep on workdays than during holidays (median difference: SWD group 1.7 h, p<0.001; reference group 1.5 h; p<0.05). The SWD group’s self-estimated sleep during holidays increased less above the sleep need (median 0.0 h) than the reference group’s sleep (1.0 h, p<0.05). In addition, the SWD group reported good recovery from irregular working hours less often (14%) than the reference group (100%, p<0.001). Although holidays were generally associated with longer sleep estimates than workdays, employees with SWD experienced consistently less efficient recovery than those without SWD.
著者
Anna ARLINGHAUS Philip BOHLE Irena ISKRA-GOLEC Nicole JANSEN Sarah JAY Lucia ROTENBERG
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.SW-4, (Released:2019-01-31)
被引用文献数
43

Working time arrangements that require shift work or other non-standard working hours have significant potential to encroach on time that is highly valued for family, social and leisure activity. This can often result in workers experiencing poorer work-family or work-life balance. Based on an extensive literature search and expert knowledge, primary risk factors were identified including shift work; long, irregular and unpredictable working hours; and work on evenings and weekends (in combination and independent of shift work). On the other hand, flexibility, in the form of adequate worker control over work schedules, may be a protective factor. In addition, workers experiencing excessive work-life conflict are likely to reduce their working hours, reflecting a reciprocal relationship between working hours and work-life balance. Workers’ families are also affected by shift work and non-standard working hours. Parents’ shift work is associated with poorer emotional and developmental outcomes for their children, and to a greater likelihood of risky behavior in adolescence. Additionally, the risk of separation or divorce is increased, especially for parents working night shifts. Due to relationships such as those above, the consequences of shiftwork and non-standard working hours on family and social life are largely dependent on a complex interaction between specific work schedules, other aspects of work organization, and family and individual worker characteristics. This article provides an overview of current evidence regarding the relationships between working time arrangements and various social and family variables, and concludes with shift scheduling and intervention recommendations to improve work-life balance and social well-being.
著者
Konstantina P. POULIANITI George HAVENITH Andreas D. FLOURIS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0075, (Released:2018-07-28)
被引用文献数
15

The assessment of energy cost (EC) at the workplace remains a key topic in occupational health due to the ever-increasing prevalence of work-related issues. This review provides a detailed list of EC estimations in jobs/tasks included in tourism, agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and transportation industries. A total of 61 studies evaluated the EC of 1667 workers while performing a large number of tasks related to each one of the aforementioned five industries. Agriculture includes the most energy-demanding jobs (males: 6.0 ± 2.5 kcal/min; females: 2.9 ± 1.0 kcal/min). Jobs in the construction industry were the 2nd most demanding (males: 4.9 ± 1.6 kcal/min; no data for females). The industry with the 3rd highest EC estimate was manufacturing (males: 3.8 ± 1.1 kcal/min; females: 3.0 ± 1.3 kcal/min). Transportation presented relatively moderate EC estimates (males: 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min; no data for females). Tourism jobs demonstrated the lowest EC values (2.5 ± 0.9 kcal/min for males and females). It is hoped that this information will aid the development of future instruments and guidelines aiming to protect workers’ health, safety, and productivity. Future research should provide updated EC estimates within a wide spectrum of occupational settings taking into account the sex, age, and physiological characteristics of the workers as well as the individual characteristics of each workplace.
著者
Sally Lee PERRIN Jillian DORRIAN Charlotte GUPTA Stephanie CENTOFANTI Alison COATES Lyla MARX Karyn BEYNE Siobhan BANKS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0070, (Released:2018-10-19)
被引用文献数
9

Flight attendants experience circadian misalignment and disrupted sleep and eating patterns. This survey study examined working time, sleep, and eating frequency in a sample (n=21, 4 males, 17 females) of Australian flight attendants (mean age=41.8 y, SD=12.0 y, mean BMI=23.8 kg/m2, SD=4.1 kg/m2). Respondents indicated frequencies of snack, meal, and caffeine consumption during their last shift. Reported sleep duration on workdays (mean=4.6 h, SD=1.9 h) was significantly lower than on days off (M=7.2 h, SD=1.2 h, p<0.001), and significantly lower than perceived sleep need (M=8.1 h, SD=0.8 h, p<0.001). Food intake was distributed throughout shifts and across the 24 h period, with eating patterns incongruent with biological eating periods. Time available, food available, and work breaks were the most endorsed reasons for food consumption. Caffeine use and reports of gastrointestinal disturbance were common. Working time disrupts sleep and temporal eating patterns in flight attendants and further research into nutritional and dietary-related countermeasures may be beneficial to improving worker health and reducing circadian disruption.
著者
Christopher G. BEAN Helen R. WINEFIELD Amanda D. HUTCHINSON Chali SARGENT Zumin SHI
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017-0196, (Released:2018-08-02)

Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and dietary energy intake are two important health behaviours, which at too low or high levels respectively, are associated with overweight and obesity. This study explores associations between subscales of the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, LTPA and dietary energy intake. A cross-sectional design sampled current employees (N=433) from a South Australian cohort using a computer-assisted telephone interview and a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. In analyses adjusted for sex, age, and sociodemographic variables, higher levels of skill discretion were associated with increased odds for attaining sufficient physical activity (OR=2.45; 95% CI=1.10–5.47). Higher levels of decision authority were associated with reduced odds (OR=0.43; 95% CI=0.20–0.93) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. Higher scores for coworker support were associated with increased odds (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.15–4.23) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. These findings support the consideration of the individual JDCS subscales, since this practice may reveal novel associations with health behaviour outcomes, thereby presenting new opportunities to improve employee health and wellbeing.
著者
Charlotte C. GUPTA Michelle DOMINIAK Katya KOVAC Amy C. REYNOLDS Sally A. FERGUSON Cassie J. HILDITCH Madeline SPRAJCER Grace E. VINCENT
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-0124, (Released:2021-10-25)
被引用文献数
1

Due to the unpredictable nature of working time arrangements, on-call workers experience regular disruption to sleep, particularly if woken by calls. Sleep disruption can impact long term physical and mental health, next day performance, and importantly, performance immediately after waking. To reduce the impact of performance impairments upon waking (i.e., reducing sleep inertia), research has investigated strategies to promote alertness (e.g., bright light, caffeine, and exercise). This review puts forth on-call workers who are likely to return to sleep after a call, it is also important to consider the impact of these sleep inertia countermeasures on subsequent sleep. Future research should build on the preliminary evidence base for sleep inertia countermeasures by examining the impact on subsequent sleep. This research is key for both supporting alertness and performance during a call (“switching on”) and for allowing the on-call worker to return to sleep after a call (“switching off”).
著者
Margo J. VAN DEN BERG T. Leigh SIGNAL Philippa H. GANDER
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0233, (Released:2019-04-17)
被引用文献数
3

Knowledge about cabin crew fatigue associated with ultra-long range (ULR) flights is still limited. Current ULR scheduling for cabin crew is therefore predominantly based on flight crew data. Cabin crews’ views on fatigue, and their strategies for mitigating it, have seldom been sought. To better understand the causes and consequences of cabin crew fatigue, semi-structured focus group discussions were held. Thematic analysis was undertaken with data from 25 cabin crew. Participants indicated that the consequences of fatigue are twofold, affecting 1) cabin crew health and wellbeing and 2) safety (cabin, passenger and personal) and cabin service. While the primary causes of fatigue were sleep loss and circadian disruption, participants also identified other key factors including: insufficient rest, high workload, the work environment, a lack of company support, and insufficient fatigue management training. They highlighted the importance of sufficient rest, not only for obtaining adequate recovery sleep but also for achieving a work-life balance. They also highlighted the need for company support, effective communication, and management’s engagement with cabin crew in general. We recommend that priority is given to fatigue management training for cabin crew, which may also enhance perceived company support and assist with achieving a better work-life balance.
著者
Timo ANTTILA Mikko HÄRMÄ Tomi OINAS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.5, pp.285-292, 2021-08-18 (Released:2021-10-05)

It is important to track the trends of future working hours, since working hours have strong associations to everyday life and work-life interaction, but also to health. In this paper we aim to track the current and future trends in working hours. We discuss the trends through the key dimensions of working hours: the length, timing, tempo and autonomy. We also consider the role of current trends of spatial changes of work. Changes in working time patterns are fostered by several driving factors: globalization and business restructuring challenging the current work organizations, new information technologies, demographic and climate change and the current and future pandemics. The past and current tremendous changes in working hours indicate that changes in working hours will continue. The contemporary trends in future working hours pose risks for personal, family and social life, material well-being and health. At its best, however, the new post-industrial working time regime may provide more autonomy and time for recovery to employees as new technologies and changes in business structures release opportunities for greater individual autonomy over how, where, and for how long paid work is performed.
著者
Claudia RC MORENO Elaine C MARQUEZE Charli SARGENT Kenneth P WRIGHT Jr. Sally A FERGUSON Philip TUCKER
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.SW-1, (Released:2019-01-31)
被引用文献数
73

Potential effects of shift work on health are probably related to the misalignment between the light-dark cycle and the human activity-rest cycle. Light exposure at night mediates these effects, including social misalignment and leads to an inversion of activity and rest, which, in turn, is linked to changes in behaviours. This article reviews the epidemiological evidence on the association between shift work and health, and possible mechanisms underlying this association. First, evidence from findings of the meta-analyses and systematic reviews published in the last 10 years is presented. In addition, it reports the larger single-occupation studies and recent large population-based studies of the general workforce. Koch’s postulates were used to evaluate the evidence related to the development of disease as a result of exposure to shift work. Finally, we discussed limitations of the multiple pathways that link shift work with specific disorders and the methodological challenges facing shift work research. We concluded that the clearest indications of shift work being the cause of a disease are given when there is a substantial body of evidence from high quality field studies showing an association and there is good evidence from laboratory studies supporting a causal explanation of the link.
著者
Georgia A. TUCKWELL Grace E. VINCENT Charlotte C. GUPTA Sally A. FERGUSON
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-0174, (Released:2022-01-28)

Sedentary behavior at work contributes to detrimental cognitive outcomes (e.g., decreases in attention). The length of time that cognitive performance benefits are sustained following bouts of breaking up sitting (e.g., using sit-stand desks or walking) is not known. A narrative review of the literature was conducted using a systematic search strategy, with keywords related to breaking up sitting interventions in office-based environments and cognitive performance outcomes in the period immediately post the cessation of the breaking up sitting intervention. Three types of office-based breaking up sitting interventions were identified; 1) sit-stand desks, 2) walking desks and 3) cycling desks. From the eight studies which met the criteria, the impacts of these interventions on cognitive performance outcomes were mixed, with significant benefits in some studies and others reporting no benefit. Of the cognitive domains assessed, working memory, attention, and psychomotor function showed significant sustained improvement for up to 30 minutes post intervention. While there are benefits to a key set of cognitive performance domains following breaking up sitting interventions in office-based settings, no studies have evaluated whether benefits to cognitive performance persist for longer than 30 minutes after the breaking up sitting intervention. Furthermore, specific applications of these cognitive benefits to tasks outside of work (e.g., driving home from work) are unknown.
著者
Alex AGOSTINI Stephanie CENTOFANTI Antonietta COLELLA Lisa DEVINE Caroline DINGLE Helen GALINDO Sophie PANTELIOS Gorjana BRKIC Siobhan BANKS Jill DORRIAN
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-0091, (Released:2021-11-16)

Shiftworkers are more likely to suffer from gastrointestinal disease and Type 2 Diabetes than the general population, likely due to their altered dietary intakes. Previous research has suggested that coping strategies and health behaviours may be linked, however, questions remain regarding these relationships in shiftworking populations. The Standard Shiftwork Index and Food Frequency Questionnaire were completed by nurses/midwives working forward rotating shifts (N=27, female=24, age=38.4 ± 13.1 y). Greater engaged coping strategy usage was associated with lower total energy, fat, carbohydrate and sugar intake (ρs>−0.1). Greater disengaged coping strategy usage was associated with greater intake of these nutrients (ρs>0.1). Results suggest that engaged coping strategies may contribute to healthier dietary choices. A greater focus on coping styles, particularly during nursing education, may improve shiftworkers’ health.
著者
Kyouko KUROSAKA Hiroyuki DAIDA Takashi MUTO Yoshiro WATANABE Sachio KAWAI Hiroshi YAMAGUCHI
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.38, no.1, pp.15-23, 2000 (Released:2007-03-29)
参考文献数
52
被引用文献数
23 31

Several epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease is higher in occupational drivers than in people with other occupations. Although occupation categories can be surrogate measures for coronary risk factors, the relationships between taxi driving and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD) has not been investigated. Even more important, the contribution of risk factors to the severity of CHD in taxi drivers remains unclear. Our study tested the hypothesis that taxi driving could be associated with the severity of CHD. We also examined the relation between this occupation and risk factors and social lifestyle. We analyzed the coronary angiograms of 57 consecutive male taxi driver patients and compared them with those of 215 ageadjusted male non-taxi-driver patients. The number of diseased vessels and risk factors were compared between two groups. The prevalence of myocardial infarction and multi-vessel disease was higher in the taxi-driver patients than in the non-taxi-driver patients. The taxi-driver patients had higher prevalence of body mass index (BMI), diabetes, and smoking, higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower levels of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that multi-vessel disease was associated with BMI and diabetes mellitus in taxi-driver patients. The taxi-driver patients were characterized by more extensive coronary atherosclerosis associated with higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity. These characteristics may be explained by in part their working environment.
著者
Igor RADUN Inkeri PARKKARI Jenni RADUN Helinä HÄKKÄNEN-NYHOLM
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-0115, (Released:2020-11-18)

Professional heavy vehicle drivers can experience a traumatic event at work when suicidal drivers deliberately crash into their vehicles or a pedestrian jumps in front of them. This study adopts a qualitative approach, aiming to gain an understanding about the psychological and other consequences that these crashes have for this occupational group. We organized a semi-structured focus group meeting with six drivers who reported experiencing a deliberate crash into their vehicle. The meeting was moderated by two psychologists. The participants reported that avoiding the crash was difficult. These events can have long-lasting effects on drivers’ well-being although individual differences in the response to the event and coping strategies do exist. Participation in our meeting was regarded as a positive experience. This encourages us to believe that organizing similar meetings that allow drivers under the supervision of professionals to share their own experiences with those who experienced similar events, could perhaps be one way of providing support to such drivers who experienced a traumatic event at work.
著者
Leonidas G. IOANNOU Lydia TSOUTSOUBI Konstantinos MANTZIOS Andreas D. FLOURIS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.6, pp.711-720, 2019 (Released:2019-11-29)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
1 14

Our primary objective in this study was to design and implement the FAME Lab PHS Calculator software (PHSFL) (www.famelab.gr/research/downloads), a free tool to calculate the predicted heat strain of an individual based on ISO 7933:2018. Our secondary objective was to optimize the practicality of the PHSFL by incorporating knowledge from other ISO standards and published literature. The third objective of this study was to assess: (i) the criterion-related validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained using the original ISO 7933:2018 code; and (ii) the construct validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained via field experiments performed in human participants during work in the heat. Our analysis for criterion validity demonstrates that PHSFL provides valid results within the required computational accuracy, according to Annex F of ISO 7933:2018. The construct validity showed that root mean square errors (RMSE) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were minimal between measured and predicted core temperature (RMSE: 0.3°C; LOA: 0.06 ± 0.58°C) and small between measured and predicted mean skin temperature (RMSE: 1.1°C; LOA: 0.59 ± 1.83°C). In conclusion, the PHSFL software demonstrated strong criterion-related and construct-related validity.