著者
Jan DE JONGE
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0097, (Released:2019-08-17)
被引用文献数
1

Recovery from work today seems to be crucial for health care employees’ health, so it is important to uncover ways how to facilitate and improve adequate recovery from work. Focusing on the recovery concept of detachment from work, this study investigated associations between detachment after work and during work breaks and individual health among health care employees from a general hospital in the Netherlands. An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted comprising a sample of 368 health care employees of different departments. Controlling for demographics in hierarchical regression analyses, results showed that when health care employees experienced more cognitive detachment after work, they reported less concentration problems. Second, when employees experienced more emotional detachment after work, they reported less feelings of emotional exhaustion, less depressive feelings, and less sleep problems. Finally, in case employees experienced more physical detachment after work, they reported less concentration problems, less feelings of emotional exhaustion, less sleep problems and less physical health problems. No significant associations were found for detachment during work breaks. In conclusion, findings add to current recovery research showing that detachment after work is an important predictor for health care employees’ health.
著者
Anna ARLINGHAUS Philip BOHLE Irena ISKRA-GOLEC Nicole JANSEN Sarah JAY Lucia ROTENBERG
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.SW-4, (Released:2019-01-31)
被引用文献数
8

Working time arrangements that require shift work or other non-standard working hours have significant potential to encroach on time that is highly valued for family, social and leisure activity. This can often result in workers experiencing poorer work-family or work-life balance. Based on an extensive literature search and expert knowledge, primary risk factors were identified including shift work; long, irregular and unpredictable working hours; and work on evenings and weekends (in combination and independent of shift work). On the other hand, flexibility, in the form of adequate worker control over work schedules, may be a protective factor. In addition, workers experiencing excessive work-life conflict are likely to reduce their working hours, reflecting a reciprocal relationship between working hours and work-life balance. Workers’ families are also affected by shift work and non-standard working hours. Parents’ shift work is associated with poorer emotional and developmental outcomes for their children, and to a greater likelihood of risky behavior in adolescence. Additionally, the risk of separation or divorce is increased, especially for parents working night shifts. Due to relationships such as those above, the consequences of shiftwork and non-standard working hours on family and social life are largely dependent on a complex interaction between specific work schedules, other aspects of work organization, and family and individual worker characteristics. This article provides an overview of current evidence regarding the relationships between working time arrangements and various social and family variables, and concludes with shift scheduling and intervention recommendations to improve work-life balance and social well-being.
著者
Konstantina P. POULIANITI George HAVENITH Andreas D. FLOURIS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0075, (Released:2018-07-28)
被引用文献数
5

The assessment of energy cost (EC) at the workplace remains a key topic in occupational health due to the ever-increasing prevalence of work-related issues. This review provides a detailed list of EC estimations in jobs/tasks included in tourism, agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and transportation industries. A total of 61 studies evaluated the EC of 1667 workers while performing a large number of tasks related to each one of the aforementioned five industries. Agriculture includes the most energy-demanding jobs (males: 6.0 ± 2.5 kcal/min; females: 2.9 ± 1.0 kcal/min). Jobs in the construction industry were the 2nd most demanding (males: 4.9 ± 1.6 kcal/min; no data for females). The industry with the 3rd highest EC estimate was manufacturing (males: 3.8 ± 1.1 kcal/min; females: 3.0 ± 1.3 kcal/min). Transportation presented relatively moderate EC estimates (males: 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min; no data for females). Tourism jobs demonstrated the lowest EC values (2.5 ± 0.9 kcal/min for males and females). It is hoped that this information will aid the development of future instruments and guidelines aiming to protect workers’ health, safety, and productivity. Future research should provide updated EC estimates within a wide spectrum of occupational settings taking into account the sex, age, and physiological characteristics of the workers as well as the individual characteristics of each workplace.
著者
Sally Lee PERRIN Jillian DORRIAN Charlotte GUPTA Stephanie CENTOFANTI Alison COATES Lyla MARX Karyn BEYNE Siobhan BANKS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0070, (Released:2018-10-19)
被引用文献数
4

Flight attendants experience circadian misalignment and disrupted sleep and eating patterns. This survey study examined working time, sleep, and eating frequency in a sample (n=21, 4 males, 17 females) of Australian flight attendants (mean age=41.8 y, SD=12.0 y, mean BMI=23.8 kg/m2, SD=4.1 kg/m2). Respondents indicated frequencies of snack, meal, and caffeine consumption during their last shift. Reported sleep duration on workdays (mean=4.6 h, SD=1.9 h) was significantly lower than on days off (M=7.2 h, SD=1.2 h, p<0.001), and significantly lower than perceived sleep need (M=8.1 h, SD=0.8 h, p<0.001). Food intake was distributed throughout shifts and across the 24 h period, with eating patterns incongruent with biological eating periods. Time available, food available, and work breaks were the most endorsed reasons for food consumption. Caffeine use and reports of gastrointestinal disturbance were common. Working time disrupts sleep and temporal eating patterns in flight attendants and further research into nutritional and dietary-related countermeasures may be beneficial to improving worker health and reducing circadian disruption.
著者
Christopher G. BEAN Helen R. WINEFIELD Amanda D. HUTCHINSON Chali SARGENT Zumin SHI
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017-0196, (Released:2018-08-02)

Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and dietary energy intake are two important health behaviours, which at too low or high levels respectively, are associated with overweight and obesity. This study explores associations between subscales of the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, LTPA and dietary energy intake. A cross-sectional design sampled current employees (N=433) from a South Australian cohort using a computer-assisted telephone interview and a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. In analyses adjusted for sex, age, and sociodemographic variables, higher levels of skill discretion were associated with increased odds for attaining sufficient physical activity (OR=2.45; 95% CI=1.10–5.47). Higher levels of decision authority were associated with reduced odds (OR=0.43; 95% CI=0.20–0.93) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. Higher scores for coworker support were associated with increased odds (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.15–4.23) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. These findings support the consideration of the individual JDCS subscales, since this practice may reveal novel associations with health behaviour outcomes, thereby presenting new opportunities to improve employee health and wellbeing.
著者
Margo J. VAN DEN BERG T. Leigh SIGNAL Philippa H. GANDER
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0233, (Released:2019-04-17)

Knowledge about cabin crew fatigue associated with ultra-long range (ULR) flights is still limited. Current ULR scheduling for cabin crew is therefore predominantly based on flight crew data. Cabin crews’ views on fatigue, and their strategies for mitigating it, have seldom been sought. To better understand the causes and consequences of cabin crew fatigue, semi-structured focus group discussions were held. Thematic analysis was undertaken with data from 25 cabin crew. Participants indicated that the consequences of fatigue are twofold, affecting 1) cabin crew health and wellbeing and 2) safety (cabin, passenger and personal) and cabin service. While the primary causes of fatigue were sleep loss and circadian disruption, participants also identified other key factors including: insufficient rest, high workload, the work environment, a lack of company support, and insufficient fatigue management training. They highlighted the importance of sufficient rest, not only for obtaining adequate recovery sleep but also for achieving a work-life balance. They also highlighted the need for company support, effective communication, and management’s engagement with cabin crew in general. We recommend that priority is given to fatigue management training for cabin crew, which may also enhance perceived company support and assist with achieving a better work-life balance.
著者
Claudia RC MORENO Elaine C MARQUEZE Charli SARGENT Kenneth P WRIGHT Jr. Sally A FERGUSON Philip TUCKER
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.SW-1, (Released:2019-01-31)
被引用文献数
8

Potential effects of shift work on health are probably related to the misalignment between the light-dark cycle and the human activity-rest cycle. Light exposure at night mediates these effects, including social misalignment and leads to an inversion of activity and rest, which, in turn, is linked to changes in behaviours. This article reviews the epidemiological evidence on the association between shift work and health, and possible mechanisms underlying this association. First, evidence from findings of the meta-analyses and systematic reviews published in the last 10 years is presented. In addition, it reports the larger single-occupation studies and recent large population-based studies of the general workforce. Koch’s postulates were used to evaluate the evidence related to the development of disease as a result of exposure to shift work. Finally, we discussed limitations of the multiple pathways that link shift work with specific disorders and the methodological challenges facing shift work research. We concluded that the clearest indications of shift work being the cause of a disease are given when there is a substantial body of evidence from high quality field studies showing an association and there is good evidence from laboratory studies supporting a causal explanation of the link.
著者
Meagan E. CROWTHER Amy C. REYNOLDS Sally A. FERGUSON Robert ADAMS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.54-62, 2020 (Released:2020-02-04)
参考文献数
42

Non-standard working hours are associated with negative health outcomes. However, little is known about the early years of exposure to non-standard work hours, or whether workers new to these work schedules perceive their work as impacting their health. This limits our ability to develop meaningful intervention strategies for transitioning into non-standard work hour schedules. This exploratory study investigated whether recent Australian graduates in various non-standard workhour schedules perceive that their work schedule negatively impacts their health. The responses of 120 graduates within four years of completing their tertiary qualification collected from an online survey were analysed. Graduates were asked whether they perceived their work arrangements as impacting their health. Significantly more of those who were engaged in non-standard work schedules or worked beyond contracted hours perceived their working arrangements as having an impact on their health. This study highlights the importance of studying workers’ perceptions of the impact of work hours on health, particularly when workers may be experiencing good global health but be at risk for negative health outcomes in future.
著者
Arne LOWDEN Gülcin ÖZTÜRK Amy REYNOLDS Bjørn BJORVATN
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.SW-9, (Released:2019-01-31)
被引用文献数
1 3

Interventions and strategies to improve health through the management of circadian (re)adaptation have been explored in the field, and in both human and animal laboratory manipulations of shiftwork. As part of an initiative by the Working Time Society (WTS) and International Committee on Occupational Health (ICOH), this review summarises the literature on the management of circadian (re)adaption using bright light treatment. Recommendations to maximise circadian adaptation are summarised for practitioners based on a variety of shiftwork schedules. In slowly rotating night shift schedules bright light appears most suitable when used in connection with the first three night shifts. These interventions are improved when combined with orange glasses (to block blue-green light exposure) for the commute home. Non-shifting strategies involve a lower dosage of light at night and promoting natural daylight exposure during the day (also recommended for day shifts) in acordance with the phase and amplitude response curves to light in humans.
著者
Janine CHAPMAN Anjum NAWEED Carlene WILSON Jillian DORRIAN
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0194, (Released:2019-03-05)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in train drivers is associated with health conditions that can result in sudden incapacity. Drivers are at high risk on several CVD risk factors with research suggesting that sleep may predict CVD risk, however this relationship has not yet been explored. This study investigated the link between sleep and CVD risk, in relation to hours of work day and days off sleep. N=309 Australian drivers completed cross-sectional survey. A CVD risk score was calculated by summing scores from behavioural and biomedical risk factors. Sleep was most frequently cited as the main reason for decline in perceived health status. Main analyses showed that shorter work day sleep (M=5.79 h) was a significant predictor of increased CVD risk (p=0.013). This relationship was moderated by days off sleep, such that when days off sleep (M=8.17 h) was higher, the effect of work day sleep on CVD risk was weaker (p=0.047). Findings indicate the amount of sleep a driver obtains on non-work days may compensate for adverse health outcomes. Successful management of fatigue in safety critical occupations appears essential not only for the prevention of safety hazards, but also for the long-term health of shift workers. Further investigation is warranted.
著者
Anjali NAG Heer VYAS Pranab NAG
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.377-385, 2016-07-31 (Released:2016-08-05)
参考文献数
41
被引用文献数
2

Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector.
著者
Mitsuo UCHIDA Hiroshi MORITA
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.3, pp.207-211, 2018 (Released:2018-06-01)
参考文献数
17
被引用文献数
1

Although long work hours have been associated with various physical health problems, studies of their association with mental health have yielded inconsistent results, due to differences in study settings, study outcome and/or unmeasured background factors. In this study, we used a propensity score method to evaluate the association between work hours and depressive state. A total of 467 Japanese white-collar workers were surveyed and divided into long and regular work hour groups according to overtime work records. Propensity score matching was performed based on 32 individual background and workplace factors, yielding 74 pairs of propensity-matched subjects. CES-D score, an indicator of depressive state, did not differ significantly among the two groups (p=0.203). However, work motivation, work control, social support and emotional stability correlated with CES-D score. These findings suggest that work control and social support factors are more associated with depressive state than control of work hours. These results also suggest that it is possible to use propensity score matching to evaluate the association between work hours and mental health in occupational study settings. Further studies, in larger populations, are required to determine the association between work hours and mental health parameters.
著者
Igor RADUN Jussi OHISALO Jenni RADUN Göran KECKLUND
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.3, pp.389-392, 2011 (Released:2011-06-14)
参考文献数
23
被引用文献数
1 2

Given the well-known difficulties in defining and detecting fatigue, it is a real challenge to incorporate it into either traffic or criminal law. Finnish traffic law forbids fatigued driving “only” on a general level concerning the driver’s fitness to drive. We present several comments from Finnish traffic and local police officers regarding their own experiences of driving while fatigued. The comments were extracted from a larger survey of traffic (N=129) and local (N=100) police officers, and prosecutors (N=96). Although the main topic of the survey was the application of the law that forbids fatigued driving, some police officers raised the issue of their own behavior in this respect. We argue that many shift workers, including police officers, break the law, especially when driving home after a night shift.
著者
John HOWARD Frank HEARL
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.50, no.2, pp.80-83, 2012 (Released:2012-04-13)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2 3

In the USA, national worker protection legislation was enacted in 1970. The legislation required that research, recommendations and guidance be developed to aid employers and workers, that workplace health and safety standards be adopted, that employer comply with those rules and that the government police employer compliance, and that assistance be offered to employers and workers to help them maintain a safe and healthful workplace. In the 40 yr since passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, worker injury, illness and fatalities have declined but not been eliminated. Efforts to accelerate the standards adoption process are much discussed in the USA along with how to protect workers from emerging hazards like nanotechnology. New strategies which seek to eliminate not only the causes of work-related injury and illness, but also more broadly, worker injury and illness, are on the horizon.
著者
Wen-Pei CHANG Ching-Mei YANG
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0066, (Released:2019-10-01)

This study investigated the relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and body mass index (BMI) of female shift-working nurses and examine the mediating effect of sleep quality on this relationship. We recruited a total of 147 female nurses working monthly rotating shifts at a teaching hospital in Taiwan from the day (n=63), evening (n=50), and night (n=34) shifts. Our research instruments utilized a questionnaire to collect demographic and work-related information, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and actigraphs to record sleep patterns for seven consecutive days. The sleep-wake cycles were then estimated using the dichotomy index (I<O). The I<O values were negatively associated with both BMI (β =–0.28, p=0.001) and PSQI scores (β =–0.29, p<0.001), the bootstrapping results indicated that the estimate of the indirect effect was –0.28, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from –0.68 to –0.05. For female shift-working nurses, sleep quality mediates the influence of the sleep-wake cycle on BMI, indicating that the maintenance of a regular sleep-wake cycle and good sleep quality could be important for female shift-working nurses.
著者
Go MUTO Rina Ishii NAKAMURA Kazuhito YOKOYAMA Fumihiko KITAMURA Yuki OMORI Masahiko SAITO Motoki ENDO
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017-0133, (Released:2017-12-19)
被引用文献数
3 4

The maintenance of a balance between work and disease treatment is an important issue in Japan. This study explored factors that affect collaboration between occupational physicians (OPs) and attending physicians (APs). A questionnaire was mailed to 1,102 OPs. The questionnaire assessed the demographic characteristics of OPs; their opinions and behaviors related to collaboration, including the exchange of medical information with APs; and the occupational health service system at their establishments. In total, 275 OPs completed the questionnaire (25.0% response rate). Over 80% of respondents believed OPs should collaborate with APs. After adjusting for company size, collaboration >10 times/year (with regard to both returning to work following sick leave and annual health check-ups for employees) was significantly associated with environmental factors, such as the presence of occupational health nurses (odds ratio (OR): 5.56 and 5.01, respectively, p<0.05) and the use of prescribed forms for information exchange (OR: 4.21 and 3.63, respectively, p<0.05) but not with the demographic characteristics of the OPs (p>0.05). The majority of OPs believed that collaboration with APs is important for supporting workers with illnesses. Support systems including prescribed forms of information exchange and occupational health nurses, play pivotal roles in promoting this collaboration.
著者
Michael H. SMOLENSKY Alain E. REINBERG Frida Marina FISCHER
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.2, pp.158-174, 2019 (Released:2019-04-01)
参考文献数
132
被引用文献数
1 3

The circadian time structure (CTS) has long been the subject of research in occupational medicine, but not to industrial toxicology, including methods of setting threshold limit values (TLVs) and employee biological monitoring. Numerous animal and human investigations document vulnerability to chemical, contagion, and other xenobiotics varies according to the circadian time of encounter. Permanent and rotating nightshift personnel are exposed to industrial contaminants in the same or higher concentration as dayshift personnel, and because of incomplete CTS adjustment to night work, contact with contaminants occurs during a different biological time than day workers. Thus, the amount of protection afforded by certain TLVs, especially for employees of high-risk settings who work night and other nonstandard shift schedules, might be inadequate. The CTS seems additionally germane to procedures of employee biological monitoring in that high-amplitude 24 h rhythms in biomarkers indicative of xenobiotic exposure may result in misjudgment of health risks when data are not gathered in sufficient frequency over time and properly interpreted. Biological reference values time-qualified for their rhythmic variation, currently of interest to laboratory medicine practice, are seemingly important to industrial medicine as circadian time and work-shift specific biological exposure indices to improve surveillance of personnel, particularly those working nonstandard shift schedules.
著者
Anna ANUND Jonas IHLSTRÖM Carina FORS Göran KECKLUND Ashleigh FILTNESS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.4, pp.337-346, 2016-07-31 (Released:2016-08-05)
参考文献数
48
被引用文献数
3 15

Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15–30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2–3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2–4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.
著者
Eden DEBELLEMANIERE Danielle GOMEZ-MERINO Mégane ERBLANG Rodolphe DOREY Michel GENOT Edith PERREAUT-PIERRE André PISANI Laurent ROCCO Fabien SAUVET Damien LÉGER Arnaud RABAT Mounir CHENNAOUI
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017-0092, (Released:2018-01-13)
被引用文献数
1

Insufficient sleep is a common occurrence in occupational settings (e.g. doctors, drivers, soldiers). The resulting sleep debt can lead to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, mood disorder, and cognitive deficits as well as altered vascular, immune and inflammatory responses. Short daytime naps have been shown to be effective at counteracting negative outcomes related to sleep debt with positive effects on daytime sleepiness and performance after a normal or restricted night of sleep in laboratory settings. However, the environmental settings in the workplace and the emotional state of workers are generally not conducive to beneficial effects. Here, we tested whether relaxation techniques (RT) involving hypnosis might increase total sleep time (TST) and/or deepen sleep. In this study, eleven volunteers (aged 37-52) took six early-afternoon naps (30 minutes) in their occupational workplace, under two different conditions: control ‘Naps' or ‘Naps + RT' with a within-subjects design. Our results demonstrate that adding RT to naps changes sleep architecture, with a significant increase in the TST, mostly due to N2 sleep stage (and N3, to a lesser extent). Therefore, the deepening of short naps with RT involving hypnosis might be a successful non-pharmacological way to extend sleep duration and to deepen sleep in occupational settings.
著者
高橋 正也
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
労働安全衛生研究 (ISSN:18826822)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.7, no.1, pp.23-30, 2014

労働者の安全と健康を確保するためには,労働の量的および質的側面の改善が必要である.現在でも,長時間労働の削減や職場の心理社会的環境の改善に向けて,多くの努力がなされている.このような職場の労働条件の向上に加えて,職場以外における過ごし方,特に余暇,を適正にすることは,労働安全衛生の水準をさらに高めるのに有益であると期待されている.最も基本的な余暇は終業後から次の勤務までの時間である.欧州連合の労働時間指令に示されているように,この時間間隔の確保はなにより重要であり,そこで行われる休養や睡眠の充実に不可欠である.同時に,労働に費やす時間の減少にもつながる.一日ごとの余暇活動の中でも,量的および質的に充分な睡眠は労働者の安全,疲労回復,健康維持に必須であることが実証されている.一方,週休二日制であれば,週末に二日間にわたる休日が得られる.こうした一週ごとの余暇を適切に過ごせると(例えば,長い朝寝を避ける),疲労回復には一定の効果がある.ただし,週内で蓄積した睡眠不足による心身への負担を完全に解消するのは難しいことに留意する必要がある.さらに,良好な睡眠を長年にわたってとれない状況が続くと,高血圧,心疾患,糖尿病,肥満などの健康障害が起こりやすくなるばかりか,筋骨格系障害や精神障害などの理由で早期に退職せざるをえない確率が2~3倍高まることが示されている.多くの労働者では,一生の中で労働者として過ごす時間はほぼ半分を占める.一生涯の生活の質を高めるためにも,労働時間の中,そして外の要因(余暇と睡眠)が最適化されなければならない.この課題を達成するには,行政,事業所,労働者個人それぞれの層で,余暇の見直しと根拠に基づいた実践が求められる.