著者
Yuko OCHIAI Yasumasa OTSUKA
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.5, pp.436-446, 2021-11-25 (Released:2022-10-01)
被引用文献数
4

Although an increasing number of studies on psychological safety at workplaces has been conducted in both western and eastern countries, there are few empirically validated measures in Japan. Our purpose was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Psychological Safety Scale. Japanese workers were invited to participate in online surveys at baseline and at one-month follow-up (N=320). The Psychological Safety Scale was translated into Japanese according to international guidelines. Social support at workplace, work engagement, organization-based self-esteem, organizational justice, and job satisfaction were measured. Cronbach’s alphas and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were examined for reliability, and its validity was tested by confirmatory factor analysis and correlational analyses. The results of the survey showed that respondents were 287 at baseline and 236 at follow-up. Cronbach’s alphas of the Psychological Safety Scale were 0.91 (baseline) and 0.88 (follow-up), and ICC was 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a marginally acceptable fit. Overall, the Japanese Psychological Safety Scale had moderate to strong correlations with other scales. In conclusion, the Japanese version of the Psychological Safety Scale had acceptable levels of reliability and validity, and may be applicable for use in Japanese workers.
著者
Issei KATO Yuta MASUDA Kei NAGASHIMA
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-0072, (Released:2021-08-20)
被引用文献数
5

Surgical masks are widely used for the prevention of respiratory infections. However, the risk of heat stroke during intense work or exercise in hot and humid environments is a concern. This study aimed to examine whether wearing surgical masks increases the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in such environments. Twelve participants conducted treadmill exercise for 30 min at 6 km/h, with 5% slope, 35°C ambient temperature, and 65% relative humidity, while wearing or not a surgical mask (mask and control trials, respectively). Rectal temperature (Trec), ear canal temperature (Tear), and mean skin temperature (mean Tskin) were assessed. Skin temperature and humidity of the perioral area of the face (Tface and RHface) were also estimated. Thermal sensation and discomfort, sensation of humidity, fatigue, and thirst were rated using the visual analogue scale. Trec, Tear, mean Tskin, and Tface increased during the exercise, without any difference between the two trials. RHface during the exercise was greater in the mask trial. The psychological ratings increased during the exercise, without any difference between the two trials. These results suggest that wearing surgical masks does not increase the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in moist heat.
著者
Fumiaki TAKA Kyoko NOMURA Saki HORIE Keisuke TAKEMOTO Masumi TAKEUCHI Shinichi TAKENOSHITA Aya MURAKAMI Haruko HIRAIKE Hiroko OKINAGA Derek R. SMITH
出版者
独立行政法人 労働安全衛生総合研究所
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.6, pp.480-487, 2016-11-30 (Released:2016-12-07)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
24

We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains of ‘Women utilization', ‘Organizational promotion of gender equal society' and ‘Consultation service'); and a gender inequality in academia scale that had been previously developed. Multivariable linear models demonstrated significant statistical interactions between gender and perceptions of organizational climate; ‘Women utilization' or lack of ‘Inequality in academia' alleviated burnout only in women. In consequence of this gender difference, when ‘Women utilization' was at a lower level, both personal (p=.038) and work-related (p=.010) burnout scores were higher in women, and the student-related burnout score was lower in women when they perceived less inequality in academia than in men (p=.030). As such, it is suggested organizational fairness for gender equity may be a useful tool to help mitigate psychological burnout among women in academia.
著者
Issei KATO Yuta MASUDA Kei NAGASHIMA
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.5, pp.325-333, 2021-08-18 (Released:2021-10-05)
被引用文献数
5

Surgical masks are widely used for the prevention of respiratory infections. However, the risk of heat stroke during intense work or exercise in hot and humid environment is a concern. This study aimed to examine whether wearing a surgical mask increases the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in such environment. Twelve participants conducted treadmill exercise for 30 min at 6 km/h, with 5% slope, 35°C ambient temperature, and 65% relative humidity, while wearing or not a surgical mask (mask and control trials, respectively). Rectal temperature (Trec), ear canal temperature (Tear), and mean skin temperature (mean Tskin) were assessed. Skin temperature and humidity of the perioral area of the face (Tface and RHface) were also estimated. Thermal sensation and discomfort, sensation of humidity, fatigue, and thirst were rated using the visual analogue scale. Trec, Tear, mean Tskin, and Tface increased during the exercise, without any difference between the two trials. RHface during the exercise was greater in the mask trial. Hot sensation was greater in the mask trial, but no influence on fatigue and thirst was found. These results suggest that wearing a surgical mask does not increase the risk of heat stroke during mild exercise in moist heat.
著者
Jan DE JONGE
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2019-0097, (Released:2019-08-17)
被引用文献数
12

Recovery from work today seems to be crucial for health care employees’ health, so it is important to uncover ways how to facilitate and improve adequate recovery from work. Focusing on the recovery concept of detachment from work, this study investigated associations between detachment after work and during work breaks and individual health among health care employees from a general hospital in the Netherlands. An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted comprising a sample of 368 health care employees of different departments. Controlling for demographics in hierarchical regression analyses, results showed that when health care employees experienced more cognitive detachment after work, they reported less concentration problems. Second, when employees experienced more emotional detachment after work, they reported less feelings of emotional exhaustion, less depressive feelings, and less sleep problems. Finally, in case employees experienced more physical detachment after work, they reported less concentration problems, less feelings of emotional exhaustion, less sleep problems and less physical health problems. No significant associations were found for detachment during work breaks. In conclusion, findings add to current recovery research showing that detachment after work is an important predictor for health care employees’ health.
著者
Bożena WIELGOSZEWSKA Charlotte BOOTH Michael J GREEN Olivia KL HAMILTON Jacques WELS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2022-0081, (Released:2022-05-19)
被引用文献数
4

Little is known about the relationship between homeworking and mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic and how it might differ by keyworker status. To understand this relationship, we use longitudinal data collected over three time points during the pandemic from three British cohort studies born in 1958 (National Child Development Study), 1970 (British Cohort Study) and 1989–90 (Next Step) as well as from a population-based study stratified by four age groups (Understanding Society). We estimate the association between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and psychological distress and homeworking by key worker status using mixed effects models with maximum likelihood estimation to account for repeated measurements across the pandemic, allowing intercepts to vary across individuals after controlling for a set of covariates including pre-pandemic home working propensities and loneliness. Results show that key workers working from home showed the greatest decline in mental health outcomes relative to other groups. Pre-pandemic homeworking did not significantly change the nature of such a relationship and loneliness slightly attenuated some of the effects. Finally, mental health outcomes varied across age-groups and time points. The discussion emphasises the need to pay attention to key workers when assessing the relationship between mental health and homeworking.
著者
Mitsunobu SAITO Shinichi TOKUNO Kanami TSUNO
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.61, no.5, pp.329-341, 2023 (Released:2023-09-22)
参考文献数
46

Despite the increasing need for nursing care services, the turnover rate of care workers is high in Japan. Since the most common reason for quitting nursing care jobs was problems with interpersonal relationships at work, creating psychosocially safe working environments is urgent. This study aimed to investigate the mediating effects of trust in supervisors (TS) on the association between positive feedback (PF)/negative feedback (NF) and work engagement (WE) based on the job demands–resources theory and conservation of resources theory. We conducted anonymous cross-sectional surveys of 469 employees at elderly care facilities in Japan. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the causal relationships between the variables. The results showed that PF had significant positive effects on WE, directly and indirectly through TS. By contrast, NF had a nonsignificant positive effect on TS or WE. Tucker–Lewis Index [TLI] was 0.917, Comparative Fit Index [CFI] was 0.927, Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation [RMSEA] was 0.096, and Standardized Root Mean squared Residual [SRMR] was 0.042. The study results indicate that sufficient PF is needed to improve subordinates’ WE through TS in elderly care facilities.
著者
Michiko NOHARA Mikio MOMOEDA Toshiro KUBOTA Masao NAKABAYASHI
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.49, no.2, pp.228-234, 2011 (Released:2011-04-14)
参考文献数
22
被引用文献数
27 70

Women’s employment in Japan has increased substantially in recent decades, however little large scale research has been done on the impact of various types of working conditions on women’s health. The aim of this study was to assess the menstrual cycle and menstrual pain problems of female workers and to investigate the factors that relate to them. The questionnaire was distributed to 8,150 women and 2,166 responded (26.6%). An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to get information about demographics, menstrual cycle status, the degree of menstrual pain, and employment and environmental factors. Irregular cycle menstruation was experienced in 17.1% of responded workers. We discovered the relationship between irregular menstrual cycles and stress, smell of cigarettes, age and smoking habits. Some degree of menstrual pain was experienced in 77.6% of responded workers. This study showed the relationship between menstrual pain and stress, high temperature and humidity, age, BMI, and number of births. In conclusion, we found that stress is thought to be an important factor related with menstrual cycle irregularities and menstrual pain among Japanese female workers.
著者
Päivi VANTTOLA Mikko HÄRMÄ Christer HUBLIN Katriina VIITASALO Mikael SALLINEN Jussi VIRKKALA Sampsa PUTTONEN
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2020-0215, (Released:2022-02-15)

In shift work disorder (SWD), disturbed sleep acutely impairs employees’ recovery, but little attention has been paid to sleep during longer recovery periods. We examined how holidays affect self-estimated sleep length, sleep debt, and recovery in cases of SWD. Twenty-one shift workers with questionnaire-based SWD and nine reference cases without SWD symptoms completed a questionnaire on recovery and sleep need. They also reported sleep length on two separate occasions: during a work period and after ≥ 2 weeks of holidays. Sleep debt was calculated by subtracting sleep length from sleep need. We used parametric tests to compare the groups and the periods. The groups reported shorter sleep on workdays than during holidays (median difference: SWD group 1.7 h, p<0.001; reference group 1.5 h; p<0.05). The SWD group’s self-estimated sleep during holidays increased less above the sleep need (median 0.0 h) than the reference group’s sleep (1.0 h, p<0.05). In addition, the SWD group reported good recovery from irregular working hours less often (14%) than the reference group (100%, p<0.001). Although holidays were generally associated with longer sleep estimates than workdays, employees with SWD experienced consistently less efficient recovery than those without SWD.
著者
Anna ARLINGHAUS Philip BOHLE Irena ISKRA-GOLEC Nicole JANSEN Sarah JAY Lucia ROTENBERG
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.SW-4, (Released:2019-01-31)
被引用文献数
80

Working time arrangements that require shift work or other non-standard working hours have significant potential to encroach on time that is highly valued for family, social and leisure activity. This can often result in workers experiencing poorer work-family or work-life balance. Based on an extensive literature search and expert knowledge, primary risk factors were identified including shift work; long, irregular and unpredictable working hours; and work on evenings and weekends (in combination and independent of shift work). On the other hand, flexibility, in the form of adequate worker control over work schedules, may be a protective factor. In addition, workers experiencing excessive work-life conflict are likely to reduce their working hours, reflecting a reciprocal relationship between working hours and work-life balance. Workers’ families are also affected by shift work and non-standard working hours. Parents’ shift work is associated with poorer emotional and developmental outcomes for their children, and to a greater likelihood of risky behavior in adolescence. Additionally, the risk of separation or divorce is increased, especially for parents working night shifts. Due to relationships such as those above, the consequences of shiftwork and non-standard working hours on family and social life are largely dependent on a complex interaction between specific work schedules, other aspects of work organization, and family and individual worker characteristics. This article provides an overview of current evidence regarding the relationships between working time arrangements and various social and family variables, and concludes with shift scheduling and intervention recommendations to improve work-life balance and social well-being.
著者
Konstantina P. POULIANITI George HAVENITH Andreas D. FLOURIS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0075, (Released:2018-07-28)
被引用文献数
32

The assessment of energy cost (EC) at the workplace remains a key topic in occupational health due to the ever-increasing prevalence of work-related issues. This review provides a detailed list of EC estimations in jobs/tasks included in tourism, agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and transportation industries. A total of 61 studies evaluated the EC of 1667 workers while performing a large number of tasks related to each one of the aforementioned five industries. Agriculture includes the most energy-demanding jobs (males: 6.0 ± 2.5 kcal/min; females: 2.9 ± 1.0 kcal/min). Jobs in the construction industry were the 2nd most demanding (males: 4.9 ± 1.6 kcal/min; no data for females). The industry with the 3rd highest EC estimate was manufacturing (males: 3.8 ± 1.1 kcal/min; females: 3.0 ± 1.3 kcal/min). Transportation presented relatively moderate EC estimates (males: 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min; no data for females). Tourism jobs demonstrated the lowest EC values (2.5 ± 0.9 kcal/min for males and females). It is hoped that this information will aid the development of future instruments and guidelines aiming to protect workers’ health, safety, and productivity. Future research should provide updated EC estimates within a wide spectrum of occupational settings taking into account the sex, age, and physiological characteristics of the workers as well as the individual characteristics of each workplace.
著者
Akihito SHIMAZU Keiko SAKAKIBARA Fuad HAMSYAH Michiko KAWADA Daisuke MIYANAKA Naana MORI Masahito TOKITA
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2023-0085, (Released:2023-12-29)

Laughter is associated with better health and occurs most frequently during casual conversations. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has impaired social interactions, which may have reduced the frequency of laughter and led to poor well-being among workers. This study investigated the relationship between laughter frequency and work engagement among Japanese employees during the pandemic. We conducted a web-based survey among Japanese employees (20–59 years) via an internet survey company in December 2021; 1,058 valid data were analysed. Of the respondents, 65.1% laughed at least once a week, but the frequency was much lower than that reported in previous studies conducted before the pandemic. Additionally, those who laughed at least once a week had significantly higher work engagement scores than those who laughed less than once a month. Although employees reduced their frequency of laughter during the pandemic, a certain frequency of laughter may be important for maintaining their work engagement.
著者
Sally Lee PERRIN Jillian DORRIAN Charlotte GUPTA Stephanie CENTOFANTI Alison COATES Lyla MARX Karyn BEYNE Siobhan BANKS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0070, (Released:2018-10-19)
被引用文献数
13

Flight attendants experience circadian misalignment and disrupted sleep and eating patterns. This survey study examined working time, sleep, and eating frequency in a sample (n=21, 4 males, 17 females) of Australian flight attendants (mean age=41.8 y, SD=12.0 y, mean BMI=23.8 kg/m2, SD=4.1 kg/m2). Respondents indicated frequencies of snack, meal, and caffeine consumption during their last shift. Reported sleep duration on workdays (mean=4.6 h, SD=1.9 h) was significantly lower than on days off (M=7.2 h, SD=1.2 h, p<0.001), and significantly lower than perceived sleep need (M=8.1 h, SD=0.8 h, p<0.001). Food intake was distributed throughout shifts and across the 24 h period, with eating patterns incongruent with biological eating periods. Time available, food available, and work breaks were the most endorsed reasons for food consumption. Caffeine use and reports of gastrointestinal disturbance were common. Working time disrupts sleep and temporal eating patterns in flight attendants and further research into nutritional and dietary-related countermeasures may be beneficial to improving worker health and reducing circadian disruption.
著者
Christopher G. BEAN Helen R. WINEFIELD Amanda D. HUTCHINSON Chali SARGENT Zumin SHI
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2017-0196, (Released:2018-08-02)

Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and dietary energy intake are two important health behaviours, which at too low or high levels respectively, are associated with overweight and obesity. This study explores associations between subscales of the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS) model, LTPA and dietary energy intake. A cross-sectional design sampled current employees (N=433) from a South Australian cohort using a computer-assisted telephone interview and a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. In analyses adjusted for sex, age, and sociodemographic variables, higher levels of skill discretion were associated with increased odds for attaining sufficient physical activity (OR=2.45; 95% CI=1.10–5.47). Higher levels of decision authority were associated with reduced odds (OR=0.43; 95% CI=0.20–0.93) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. Higher scores for coworker support were associated with increased odds (OR=2.20; 95% CI=1.15–4.23) for being in the highest tertile of daily energy intake. These findings support the consideration of the individual JDCS subscales, since this practice may reveal novel associations with health behaviour outcomes, thereby presenting new opportunities to improve employee health and wellbeing.
著者
Charlotte C. GUPTA Michelle DOMINIAK Katya KOVAC Amy C. REYNOLDS Sally A. FERGUSON Cassie J. HILDITCH Madeline SPRAJCER Grace E. VINCENT
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2021-0124, (Released:2021-10-25)
被引用文献数
2

Due to the unpredictable nature of working time arrangements, on-call workers experience regular disruption to sleep, particularly if woken by calls. Sleep disruption can impact long term physical and mental health, next day performance, and importantly, performance immediately after waking. To reduce the impact of performance impairments upon waking (i.e., reducing sleep inertia), research has investigated strategies to promote alertness (e.g., bright light, caffeine, and exercise). This review puts forth on-call workers who are likely to return to sleep after a call, it is also important to consider the impact of these sleep inertia countermeasures on subsequent sleep. Future research should build on the preliminary evidence base for sleep inertia countermeasures by examining the impact on subsequent sleep. This research is key for both supporting alertness and performance during a call (“switching on”) and for allowing the on-call worker to return to sleep after a call (“switching off”).
著者
Margo J. VAN DEN BERG T. Leigh SIGNAL Philippa H. GANDER
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.2018-0233, (Released:2019-04-17)
被引用文献数
13

Knowledge about cabin crew fatigue associated with ultra-long range (ULR) flights is still limited. Current ULR scheduling for cabin crew is therefore predominantly based on flight crew data. Cabin crews’ views on fatigue, and their strategies for mitigating it, have seldom been sought. To better understand the causes and consequences of cabin crew fatigue, semi-structured focus group discussions were held. Thematic analysis was undertaken with data from 25 cabin crew. Participants indicated that the consequences of fatigue are twofold, affecting 1) cabin crew health and wellbeing and 2) safety (cabin, passenger and personal) and cabin service. While the primary causes of fatigue were sleep loss and circadian disruption, participants also identified other key factors including: insufficient rest, high workload, the work environment, a lack of company support, and insufficient fatigue management training. They highlighted the importance of sufficient rest, not only for obtaining adequate recovery sleep but also for achieving a work-life balance. They also highlighted the need for company support, effective communication, and management’s engagement with cabin crew in general. We recommend that priority is given to fatigue management training for cabin crew, which may also enhance perceived company support and assist with achieving a better work-life balance.
著者
Hae-Kwan CHEONG Dae Seob CHOI Keon Uk PARK Jung Ran KIM Kyung-Im HA Hwan Jung YUN Seoung-Oh YANG Yangho KIM
出版者
独立行政法人 労働安全衛生総合研究所
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.42, no.2, pp.179-188, 2004 (Released:2007-03-29)
参考文献数
33
被引用文献数
2 3

This study was conducted to develop a noninvasive method of bone marrow cellularity evaluation in solvent-exposed painters. Six painters with hypocellular marrow and 132 referents were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Full examination of the peripheral blood and bone marrow biopsy was done on each patient. Signal indices were calculated from the signal intensities measured at the vertebral bodies from T12 to S1 and on the paraspinal muscles on both the T1- and the T2-weighted image (T1WI and T2WI). Bone marrow cellularities of the painters were between 20.3% and 33.6%. Signal indices at T1WI were greater in the hypocellular marrow cases compared to those of the referents (p<0.05, p<0.01) and were significantly higher in older women compared with men (p<0.05). After adjusting for age and gender, the signal index of cases at S1 of T1WI was higher than that of the referents by 0.364. Five of the six cases had signal index at S1 of T1WI higher than the mean + 1 standard deviation for the same age group and gender. MRI signal indices can be used as a useful indicator of bone marrow cellularity in a high-risk population after adequate adjustment.
著者
Ki Youn KIM Yoon Shin KIM Daekeun KIM
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.48, no.2, pp.236-243, 2010 (Released:2010-04-15)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
59 70

The objective of this study is to provide fundamental data related to size-based characteristics of bioaerosol distributed in the general hospital. Measurement sites are main lobby, ICU, surgical ward and biomedical laboratory and total five times were sampled with six-stage cascade impactor. Mean concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were the highest in main lobby as followed by an order of surgical ward, ICU and biomedical laboratory. The predominant genera of airborne bacteria identified in the general hospital were Staphylococcus spp. (50%), Micrococcus spp. (15-20%), Corynebacterium spp. (5-20%), and Bacillus spp. (5-15%). On the other hand, the predominant genera of airborne fungi identified in the general hospital were Cladosporium spp. (30%), Penicillium spp. (20-25%), Aspergillus spp. (15-20%), and Alternaria spp. (10-20%). The detection rate was generally highest on stage 5 (1.1-2.1 μm) for airborne bacteria and on stage 1 (>7.0 μm) for airborne fungi.
著者
Timo ANTTILA Mikko HÄRMÄ Tomi OINAS
出版者
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
雑誌
Industrial Health (ISSN:00198366)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.59, no.5, pp.285-292, 2021-08-18 (Released:2021-10-05)
被引用文献数
5

It is important to track the trends of future working hours, since working hours have strong associations to everyday life and work-life interaction, but also to health. In this paper we aim to track the current and future trends in working hours. We discuss the trends through the key dimensions of working hours: the length, timing, tempo and autonomy. We also consider the role of current trends of spatial changes of work. Changes in working time patterns are fostered by several driving factors: globalization and business restructuring challenging the current work organizations, new information technologies, demographic and climate change and the current and future pandemics. The past and current tremendous changes in working hours indicate that changes in working hours will continue. The contemporary trends in future working hours pose risks for personal, family and social life, material well-being and health. At its best, however, the new post-industrial working time regime may provide more autonomy and time for recovery to employees as new technologies and changes in business structures release opportunities for greater individual autonomy over how, where, and for how long paid work is performed.