著者
Michael Ford Nicholas Bezio Allen Collins
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.296-305, 2020-11-18 (Released:2020-11-12)
参考文献数
36
被引用文献数
1

On April 10, 2015, three individuals of an undescribed species of ctenophore were observed moving just above the seafloor in the Arecibo Amphitheater inside the Guajataca Canyon, north-northwest of Puerto Rico at a depth of approximately 3,900 m. The ctenophore is distinctive; having two prominent tentacle arms, a body that is rectangular when observed laterally along the tentacular plane, and rounded when observed laterally along the stomodeal plane. The tentacle arms each give rise to an extensible tentacle bearing short tentilla of uniform length and distribution. One ctenophore appeared to be anchored to the seafloor by its two long flexible tentacles, as well as by two filaments exiting its oral end. The overall form of the ctenophore suggests classification within the problematic, non-monophyletic order Cydippida, but the robust tentacle arms are more reminiscent of benthic species of Platyctenida, particularly those of families Lyroctenidae and Ctenoplanidae. Whereas most platyctenid ctenophores do not possess ctene rows in their adult forms, features that are possessed by the new species described herein, species of Ctenoplanidae retain comb rows as adults and are capable of limited swimming. The species described herein is easily distinguishable from all other known species of Ctenophora and may trace its origin to a lineage diverging near the origin of Platyctenida.
著者
Ryutaro Goto Yumi Henmi Yuto Shiozaki Gyo Itani
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.155-164, 2021-08-06 (Released:2021-07-31)
参考文献数
42

Ikeda taenioides (Ikeda, 1904) (Annelida: Thalassematidae: Bonelliinae) is the world’s longest spoon worm species, which possesses an extremely long tape-like proboscis with a striped color pattern and a large brownish red trunk. This species is endemic to the Japanese Islands and inhabits a deep vertical burrow in intertidal and subtidal sand flats. Their proboscis, which extends from its small burrow opening, has been frequently observed around Japanese coasts. However, sampling of the main body (i.e., trunk) has been extremely rare because it always stays within a deep part of the burrow. Here, we report the success of the sampling of two specimens of I. taenioides with trunks in two different localities of the Seto Inland Sea (i.e., Ohmishima and Hachi), Japan, in 2019 and 2020 using a yabby pump. This is the first sampling of the trunk of I. taenioides in 88 years after its last collection in Onomichi Bay in 1931. We described the trunk color and morphological characteristics of the two specimens, including the internal anatomy. The trunks of the two specimens showed different colors, that is, pale brown (Ohmishima) and deep brownish red (Hachi). However, they were not distinguished to the species level by the comparison of partial COI sequences, suggesting that I. taenioides has an intraspecific variation in trunk color. Despite the difference in the sampling seasons (Ohmishima: June, Hachi: February), both specimens included numerous ripe eggs. According to previous studies, those collected in November and December also included numerous ripe eggs. Taken together, I. taenioides may be reproductive throughout the year or have multiple reproductive seasons per year.
著者
Ryutaro Goto Taigi Sato
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.69-72, 2021-02-19 (Released:2021-02-19)
参考文献数
21

The family Vitrinellidae is a group of tiny marine snails that generally occur in shallow waters of temperate and tropical seas. The biology of most vitrinellid species remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that Circulus cinguliferus (A. Adams, 1850) (Vitrinellidae), distributed widely in the warm shallow waters of the Pacific, inhabit crustacean burrows, including those of the mud shrimp Neaxius acanthus (Strahlaxiidae) and snapping shrimp Alpheus rapax (Alpheidae), in the intertidal and subtidal flats of the Okinawa Islands, southern Japan. They exhibited highly clumped distribution among the host burrows, suggesting that they are attracted by conspecifics. Although the biology of most Circulus species remains unknown, Circulus texanus (D. R. Moore, 1965) is known to inhabit stomatopod burrows in the western Atlantic. Our findings suggest that such a commensal habit may be more widespread in this genus than previously thought.
著者
Takahiro Sugiyama Naoto Jimi Ryutaro Goto
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.289-295, 2020-11-18 (Released:2020-11-12)
参考文献数
30
被引用文献数
1

The Polynoidae, commonly known as “scale-worms” due to the scale-like elytra on the dorsal surface, contains many species living in symbioses with other invertebrates. Most of these symbionts are host-specific, but some have a wide range of hosts. The genus Asterophilia includes two species living in shallow subtropical to tropical waters in the Pacific Ocean as ectosymbionts of asteroids and, more rarely, crinoids. Here, we recorded Asterophilia culcitae from asteroid hosts (Culcita novaeguineae, Linckia laevigata, L. guildingi, and Leiaster leachi) and, for the first time, from holothurian hosts [Stichopus chloronotus, Holothuria atra, H. (Stauropora) pervicax, and Bohadschia argus] along warm Japanese Pacific coasts. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences of the specimens from holothurians did not differ significantly from those on asteroid hosts, proving that A. culcitae has a wide host range across three different echinoderm classes: asteroids, holothurians, and crinoids. The general body color of A. culcitae was constantly reddish (female) or whitish (male), regardless of the host body color, although a previous study suggested that it differs in accordance with the host body color. However, we found that one individual from a holothurian host showed a different color pattern: A. culcitae typically shows three whitish or yellowish elytral mounds that have been suggested to mimic the tube foot of the asteroid hosts, whereas one individual from S. chloronotus had reddish brown translucent mounds, which we suggest might be cryptic on its holothurian host.
著者
Sho Toshino Jun Nishikawa Khwanruan Srinui Supattra Taleb Hiroshi Miyake
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.3, pp.143-149, 2019-08-26 (Released:2019-08-17)
参考文献数
29
被引用文献数
1

The stings of box jellyfishes can be fatal, so knowing the fauna of a certain area is important to save lives. Five described and two still-undescribed species of Cubozoa have been reported from Thailand: Chironex indrasaksajiae, Chironex sp., Chiropsella sp., Chiropsoides buitendijki, Copula sivickisi, Morbakka fenneri, and Tripedalia cystophora. We made detailed observations of the morphology of two of the species newly recorded in Thailand: Alatina morandinii and Tripedalia binata. The molecular phylogeny of these species is also discussed. Additional investigations are needed to understand the diversity of Cubozoa in Thailand.
著者
Luna Yamamori Makoto Kato
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.14, no.2, pp.131-134, 2019-05-28 (Released:2019-05-24)
参考文献数
13
被引用文献数
1

The rock-boring sea urchin, Echinostrephus molaris, excavates soft rocks, and the pits are later used by non-boring sea urchins such as Echinometra mathaei and Anthocidaris crassispina. The pits used by these non-boring sea urchins are also characteristically inhabited by a limpet-like algivorous trochid snail, Broderipia iridescens (Gastropoda, Trochidae). To determine how this unique symbiotic association is maintained, we observed reproduction and larval development of the snail, and performed assays to detect what induced settlement in the snail larvae. As candidates of settlement inducers, a habitat biofilm plate, the host and the non-host sea urchins, and conspecific snails were kept in separate glass bowls, and newly hatched B. iridescens veliger larvae were introduced to each bowl. Sixty to 80% of larvae settled in bowls that contained the non-boring host sea urchins and conspecific snails. On the other hand, only approximately 8% of the larvae settled in bowls containing the boring non-host sea urchins. This is the first report demonstrating that larval settlement of an algivore is induced not by the habitat biofilms, but by the symbiotic hosts.
著者
Avril H. Underwood Ilka Straehler-Pohl Teresa J. Carrette Jessica Sleeman Jamie E. Seymour
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.4, pp.143-153, 2018-11-21 (Released:2018-11-14)
参考文献数
71
被引用文献数
2

This research presents the early life history stages of Malo maxima, a recently described tropical Australian cubozoan from the family Carukiidae, from sexual fertilisation to metamorphosis including planula, polyp, asexual reproductive strategies and young medusa. We discuss the similarities between M. maxima and two closely related carukiid species from Japan and Australia including morphology and behaviours previously undocumented in the class Cubozoa. All three carukiids can reproduce by mono-disk strobilation, a strategy common to all other orders of the class Scyphozoa but only recently described in Cubozoa.
著者
Hisanori Kohtsuka Kohei Oguchi Yusuke Yamana Masanori Okanishi
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.228-236, 2021-08-06 (Released:2021-07-31)
参考文献数
60

More than 100 individuals of sea cucumber larvae were collected in the Japanese coastal sea of Moroiso, Sagami Bay, Kanagawa Prefecture, central-eastern Japan, in January 2018. Based on an obtained sequence of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene region of one juvenile, it was identified as Sclerodactyla multipes by BLAST search with 0.3% genetic distance. The developmental process of the S. multipes was observed for three months, in which time, they grew from 250 µm to about 4 mm in length; here they showed distinct tentacles and dermal ossicles. Detailed morphological features of this species were described based on stereomicroscopic, fluorescence and SEM observations for the first time. This is the first description of life history through planktonic larva to juveniles in the family Sclerodactylidae.
著者
Chong Chen Leigh Marsh Jonathan T. Copley
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.1, pp.25-27, 2018-02-28 (Released:2018-03-14)
参考文献数
16
被引用文献数
2

“Mating stacks” have been widely documented in calyptraeid slipper limpets, which are protandric and exhibit sequential hermaphroditism. Gigantopelta is a genus of peltospirid snails endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents containing two species, one distributed on the East Scotia Ridge in the Southern Ocean and another on the Southwest Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean. Here, we report the observation that both species form extensive (often >15 individuals) “snail chains”. These chains are potentially analogous to ‘mating stacks’ of calyptraeids, or alternatively, maybe a behaviour to facilitate spermatophore transfer. Both Gigantopelta species apparently have separate sexes and are sexually mature at a small size. However, it remains unclear whether they undergo sex change during their life.
著者
Sho Toshino
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.4, pp.327-333, 2020-11-18 (Released:2020-11-12)
参考文献数
34

The order Coronatae is a unique group, with the following characters distinguishing them from other scyphozoans: a coronal furrow, a coronate pedalium, and oocytes that develop without accessory pigments. Coronatae polyps are enclosed in chitinous tubes and produce multiple ephyrae via polydisk strobilation. So far, eleven described species of Coronatae have been reported in Japanese waters: Atolla wyvillei, Atolla vanhoeffeni, Atolla russelli, Atorella vanhoeffeni, Atorella japonica, Nausithoe punctata, Palephyra pelagica, Periphylla periphylla, Periphyllopsis braueri, Stephanoscyphistoma corniformis and Nausithoe racemosa. The present study reports detailed observations of the morphology of one species newly recorded in Japan: Linuche draco. Development from ephyra to mature medusa was observed and recorded. Additional investigations are needed to understand the diversity of the order Coronatae in Japan.
著者
Natasha Phillips Lawrence Eagling Chris Harrod Neil Reid Valentina Cappanera Jonathan Houghton
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.12, no.2, pp.143-144, 2017-05-30 (Released:2017-06-06)
参考文献数
19
被引用文献数
10 12

This study presents new evidence of the extensive trophic role of gelatinous zooplankton by documenting typically non-marine predators, mallard ducks, feeding on hydrozoans in shallow, coastal environments.
著者
Yusuke Kondo Shoma Okada Susumu Ohtsuka Takeshi Hirabayashi Aya Adachi Makoto Urata Sho Toshino Hiroshi Miyake Nanako O. Ogawa Naohiko Ohkouchi
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.66-74, 2018-05-30 (Released:2018-05-24)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
1 1

In this study, we investigated the trophic interactions between the Japanese giant box jellyfish, Morbakka virulenta, and fish in the central part of the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan, in autumn and winter. Occurring in the surface waters at nighttime, these cubomedusae, regardless of their size (1.5 to 22.5 cm in bell height), were found to be piscivorous, feeding mainly on the Japanese anchovy, as shown by their stomach contents analysis. This finding was supported by a stable isotopic analysis and by an unchanged cnidome, irrespective of the bell height of medusae. Their nocturnal occurrence near the surface often took place around the slack tide, during which the medusae were foraging with tentacles fully extended. Other associations between the medusae and fish were also observed at this time: presumed commensalism with juvenile Japanese horse mackerel, and predation by black scraper.
著者
Isao Sano Takumi Saito Jun-Ichi Miyazaki Akihisa Shirai Takeru Uechi Takaki Kondo Satoshi Chiba
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.97-111, 2020-05-27 (Released:2020-05-30)
参考文献数
81
被引用文献数
1

The evolutionary history and diversity of unionoid mussels in East Asia need to be clarified and would shed light on the formation process of the unique fauna of Japan. Unionoid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia) are unique models for understanding the process by which organisms have diversified before and after the formation of the Japanese archipelago. Unionoid mussels have poor dispersal ability, so it is thought that they would have been strongly influenced by the archipelago’s formation. Therefore, the speciation and diversification processes of mussels before and after the archipelago’s formation were investigated by analyzing the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of a wide range of species, particularly those inhabiting East Asia. The evolutionary history and divergence time of these mussels were examined. Unionoid mussels were found to have higher endemicity than other freshwater organisms. Although most of the endemic unionoid mussels of Japan are likely to have diverged before the formation of the Japanese archipelago, some other Japanese unionoid mussel species, including species endemic to Lake Biwa, an ancient lake in Japan, potentially diverged after the Japanese archipelago began to separate from the continent. This suggest that adaptation to the unique habitat of the ancient lake has caused diversification in the mussels endemic to it.
著者
Yuki Hamaguchi Akane Iida Jun Nishikawa Euichi Hirose
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.3, pp.221-227, 2021-08-06 (Released:2021-07-31)
参考文献数
20

Mastigias papua, known as the golden (or spotted) jellyfish, is an epipelagic jellyfish widely distributed in the warm waters of the West Pacific. This jellyfish has a brownish body, owing to zooxanthellae, and white spots. We measured the maximum force to pierce the umbrella, which averaged 94–144 mm in diameter, to evaluate the hardness of M. papua, and returned a range of 0.14–0.45 N. Correlation analyses indicate that when the M. papua medusa grows (i.e., becomes heavier), the umbrella becomes larger in diameter, as well as thicker and harder within the size range we examined. However, a significant relationship between the hardness of the umbrellar apex and the thickness of the umbrella was not obtained. White spots are comprised of loose aggregates of mesogleal cells containing reflective granules. Since the white spots and the transparent parts were not significantly different in hardness, the spots were unlikely to strengthen the umbrella. The primary function of the spots may be the shading of solar radiation. Most of the zooxanthellae are located in mesogleal cells, and often beneath the exumbrellar epidermis. Therefore, light shading by white spots may be unnecessary for the zooxanthellae in mesogleal cells.
著者
Mitsuko Hidaka-Umetsu Dhugal J. Lindsay
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.13, no.2, pp.41-45, 2018-05-30 (Released:2018-05-24)
参考文献数
14
被引用文献数
1

An individual narcomedusa assignable to Solmissus incisa sensu lato was observed having ingested a fish at 573 m depth near the southeast slope of the Kaikata seamount, Japan. Solmissus is a very common deep-sea narcomedusan genus that is widely considered to be a predator specializing on gelatinous plankton. Several cryptic species, with differences in the number of tentacles and form of manubrial pouches, are thought to be included in the nominal species Solmissus incisa. Therefore, the present study gives a short description of the morphotype of Solmissus incisa s.l. observed with a fish in its stomach, as well as several individuals of the same morphotype that had ingested gelatinous prey.
著者
Yuka Kushida Hiroki Kise Catherine S. McFadden James Davis Reimer
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.3, pp.259-268, 2020-08-14 (Released:2020-08-04)
参考文献数
48
被引用文献数
1

Sea pens are ecologically important habitats for associated marine organisms, serving as ecosystem engineers in sandy or muddy seafloor environments. In such areas, sea pens can form habitats with high population densities known as “sea pen fields”. However, the presence and importance of sea pen fields have not been well studied in shallow waters in East Asia. Here, we report a sea pen field of Virgularia sp. aff. gustaviana in the shallow waters of Ushibuka Marine Park, in the Amakusa Islands of southern Japan. The average colony numbers of the field across all depths (7–20 m) was 10.3 colonies/m2 (live colonies) to 13.6 colonies/m2 (all: live+dead colonies+holes), and the area of the sea pen field was at least ∼50,000 m2. At a depth of 15 m, the substratum consisted of sand and fallen leaves of terrestrial origin, and the highest sea pen density was observed (averages=17.2 live colonies/m2, =25.8 total (live+dead+holes) colonies/m2). At a depth of 20 m, the substratum consisted of broken shells and rocks and had the lowest density (live colonies: average=0.8 colonies/m2, all: average=1.0 colonies/m2). There were significant differences in colony number of Virgularia sp. aff. gustaviana between the “sand”, “sand+leaves”, and “broken shells/rocks” substrates. We hypothesize that the strength of the water currents caused by local geographic features and tidal movements produce suitable sedimentation and habitat for this species of sea pen. Therefore, we suggest that preserving the natural coastline is crucial to protect this and other sea pen fields in shallow waters and their benthic marine communities.
著者
Yusuke Yamana Taiga Kunishima Masami Obuchi Takuma Fujii
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.168-177, 2020-05-27 (Released:2020-05-30)
参考文献数
11
被引用文献数
2

With a focus on building an inventory of subtropical species of epifaunal holothurians and completing an environmental assessment, SCUBA surveys were carried out in the Amami Islands of Kagoshima Prefecture in southern Japan. The following 12 nominal species belonging to seven genera (subgenera), as well as two as yet undescribed species belonging to two genera, were observed: Bohadschia argus Jäger, 1833; B. bivittata Mitsukuri, 1912; B. vitiensis (Semper, 1867); Holothuria (Halodeima) atra Jäger, 1833; H.(H.) edulis Lesson, 1830; Holothuria (Microthele) nobilis (Selenka, 1867); Personothuria graeffei (Semper, 1867); Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835; S. hermanni Semper, 1867; S. naso Semper, 1867; Thelenota anax H.L. Clark, 1921; Euapta sp.; Synapta maculata (Chamisso et Eysenhardt, 1821); and Opheodesoma sp. In the semi-closed waters around the Amami Islands, epifaunal holothurians showed what seemed to be species-specific distribution patterns related to topographical features. Furthermore, ignition loss values of feces and sediments suggested that selective deposit feeding may be predominant in at least several of the species sampled.
著者
Hiromi Kayama Watanabe Chong Chen Eijiroh Nishi Yasuhiko Ohara
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.16, no.1, pp.73-77, 2021-02-19 (Released:2021-02-19)
参考文献数
19

Phyllochaetopterus (Annelida: Chaetopteridae) is a diverse genus of tube-dwelling polychaetes found in a wide range of marine environments from subtidal to abyssal depths, including chemosynthesis-based ecosystems. The Shinkai Seep Field (SSF) is a serpentinite-hosted system in the Mariana Trench, where the deepest-known Phyllochaetopterus polychaetes inhabit the surfaces of brucite/carbonate chimneys. Despite all specimens collected from SSF being morphologically consistent with P. polus originally described from a deep-sea hot vent on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, molecular barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene revealed at least three cryptic lineages, none of which corresponded to P. polus. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered P. polus embedded among the three SSF lineages, confirming their close relationship. These results warrant careful examination of Phyllochaetopterus from other regions using integrative taxonomy in order to understand its true diversity and pinpoint further taxonomically informative morphological characters.
著者
Tatsuya Ishikawa Akira Kurashima
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.112-120, 2020-05-27 (Released:2020-05-30)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
1

This study aimed to estimate the feeding pressure of a Diadema setosum population on a barren ground in Kata Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan, which is a temperate region. We combined data of the feeding rate of D. setosum from tank experiments and of the D. setosum population dynamics obtained from monthly surveys. We conducted tank experiments to clarify the relationships between the feeding rate of D. setosum and the water temperature and test diameter of the sea urchins. The feeding rate and water temperature were positively correlated over the range of 15°C to 30°C. The test diameter composition of the D. setosum population in Kata Bay was stable throughout the study period (June 2014 to May 2015). The results revealed distinct seasonal changes in the feeding pressure of the D. setosum population owing to temperature variations.
著者
James Davis Reimer Takuma Fujii Hiroki Kise Kensuke Yanagi Katie Cook James Cant Keita Koeda Tatsuki Koido Takaya Kitamura Takuma Mezaki
出版者
The Plankton Society of Japan, The Japanese Association of Benthology
雑誌
Plankton and Benthos Research (ISSN:18808247)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.15, no.2, pp.185-187, 2020-05-27 (Released:2020-05-30)
参考文献数
13

The zooxanthellate scleractinian species Goniopora stokesi is widely distributed across the Indo-Pacific Ocean, and in Japan the northernmost records of this species are from Tatsukushi, Kochi on Shikoku, although these records are not associated with specimens deposited in museums. The species is unique among Goniopora in that it lives on soft bottom sediment, forming free-living colonies, and produces asexual daughter colonies, or ‘polyp balls,’ via budding from parent colonies. Here we report on a large G. stokesi community from Otsuki, Kochi, Japan, representing the northernmost specimen-based record of the species. Specimen-based records are important as verifiable baseline data in light of global warming and climate change, which is expected to drastically effect the marine flora and fauna of Kochi and surrounding areas.