- 日本建築学会計画系論文集 (ISSN:13404210)
- vol.86, no.781, pp.1001-1011, 2021 (Released:2021-03-30)
From the time of birth, the concept of '"the park" in the city' has ever served as a tool for accepting the contradictions between legal systems and reality. Thus, such parks have continually undergone transformations. Because parks are owned and managed by the public sector, they are expected to be permanent, non-construction sites; however, the reality is different. Miyashita Park in downtown Shibuya in Tokyo Prefecture, Japan, was built on a scattered piece of land, and it has witnessed rapid changes. The periods of change of this park can be divided into five categories: (1) The Meiji era, when the feudal system changed to modern times, and the concept of parks was born; (2) 1953, when the park was first completed; (3) around 1964, the time of Tokyo Olympics, when a parking building was built on the ground, and the park was moved to the top of the roof; the park then was occupied by a homeless community; (4) around 2011, when sports facilities were installed in the park, and spatial and temporal closures became the norm under the normal operation by the local government because it had to manage the facilities; and (5) 2020, when the park was redeveloped and fully privatised; further, the park will now be managed by a private operator on a 30-year fixed land lease. Another Olympics has brought the opportunity to redevelop and redesign parks. The concepts such as possession, ‘no-man's land’, indifference, publicness and open space have been discussed by many philosophers, urban researchers, social scientists and constitutional scholars. In summary, urban parks have the potential to secure Liberty from law. If we need human rights and democracy, we have to realise them by securing places for them, namely the park in the city. Therefore, we have to preserve such urban parks; however, this is a great challenge. As seen from the example of Miyashita Park, at one point of time, homeless people occupied the park, and subsequently, the local government, with the support of local residents, evicted them using urban development projects legally with private companies; both events should not have happened. A system of conservation officers in natural conservation areas and play-leaders in play-parks can provide insights into maintaining urban parks. The only way to build such a system is through the practice of defending ‘the park in the city’.