Juha I. UITTO
- The Association of Japanese Geographers
- 地理学評論 (ISSN:13479555)
- vol.76, no.12, pp.869-881, 2003-10-01 (Released:2008-12-25)
This article is concerned with sustainable development of coastal and marine areas in East Asia. It argues that coastal and marine environment is under serious onslaught from human activities in this most populous of world regions. While the basic processes affecting coastal and marine environment in the region are the same as elsewhere in the world, the rapid economic growth, urbanization and industrialization put specifically high stress on the environment in East Asia. Furthermore, many of the region's countries are major maritime nations that both depend on the ocean and have an impact on it. It is recognized that many development pressures are conflicting in the coastal and ocean space, and that the environment often loses out to economic considerations. Due to the transboundary nature of the oceanic environment, governance at global, regional and local levels is a must. The article highlights the main international mechanisms governing the use of oceans. It also introduces the main funding mechanism for supporting sustainable coastal and marine management in the developing countries, the Global Environment Facility. The main part of the paper highlights two major international projects aimed at protecting the marine and coastal environment in East Asia from ship-based and land-based sources of pollution, respectively. Lessons that can be learned from these projects include the need for regional cooperation while at the same time responding to the needs of the individual countries; the necessity of involving all sectors of the society, including national and local governments, the civil society and the private sector; and the importance of a sound scientific basis for decision-making and public education.