- 一般社団法人 日本体育学会
- 体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
- vol.60, no.1, pp.223-238, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
Prior research on extracurricular sports in Japan has focused on the survival of such activities as an apparatus of discipline after postwar reform of democratic education. This situation has been criticized, whereas a philosophy of “childhood autonomy” has been idealized as an intrinsic value; research in this field has advocated “student freedom” through release from the apparatus of discipline. However, the current situation is paradoxical, as repeated discussions about “childhood autonomy” have not yet led to realization of their goals. Therefore, it is necessary to reconsider the strategy employed in previous research, and the present study attempted to do this by focusing on the activities of students in a high school track and field club based on Foucault's theory of power. An important component of Foucault's theory is not to aim for release from power, but to describe the function of power in relation to knowledge. However, prior research has tended to overlook how “childhood autonomy” can be recognized in relation to the function of power. Therefore, the present study attempted to clarify the function of power within the context of extracurricular sports activities, while capturing the process whereby students recognize the philosophy of “childhood autonomy”. Unexpectedly, it was found that free practice allows students to gain affinity for discipline within the context of extracurricular sports activities as an apparatus of discipline, but it is not for becoming “docile bodies”, and that it is possible to find potential avenues of freedom, as defined by Foucault, in such activities. Foucault's freedom requires individuals to experience the functions of power rather than being released from them. Therefore, extracurricular sports activities as an apparatus of discipline provides a milieu that enables students to engage in free practice, rather than inhibiting their freedom. Our findings highlight the possibilities and limitations of freedom that students can experience within the context of extracurricular sports activities.