著者
高橋 豪仁
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.139-150, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
37

Mass audiences can now commonly congregate in stadiums due to factors such as advanced transport, increased leisure time, and the growth of the mass media, which has improved spectator sports to create a vibrant and exciting atmosphere produced by the cheering of large numbers of fans who wish to watch players performing. Cheering is a critical component of spectator sports culture. In Japanese professional baseball there are private fan clubs that are central for the generation of cheering within the stadium during the game. The present study focused on the subculture of professional baseball fan clubs that are organized voluntarily by mass sports fans. This paper not only deals with the pattern of action and the value standards peculiar to such fan clubs, but also clarifies the dominant/parent culture that is central to the subculture, and how the subculture is created by adopting the dominant/parent culture through negotiation or conflict between members or groups based on the power resource of the subculture typical to their own. The data were collected through participant observation of private fan clubs of the Hiroshima Carp. It is inferred from descriptions about conflict and power relationships among the members or groups that the social resources are demo-commitment in the stadium and closeness with the baseball team and players, and that “flag-waving” and “leading”, which are the typical forms of cheering behavior in stadiums, serve a ritualistic function of symbolizing the social power of the fan clubs. Furthermore, bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution are adopted into these distinctive patterns of action and value standards. The former is a dominant culture taken from the mainstream of modern society, and the latter is a parent culture located at a lower level of society. Multiple strata are evident in the subculture of fan clubs. This does not simply mean that the fan clubs have the characteristics of bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution, but illustrates that the subculture of private fan clubs is created by domesticating bureaucracy and the quasi-family institution to their own values standard and pattern of act about cheering.
著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 春日 芳美
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.129-142, 2012 (Released:2012-06-02)
参考文献数
72
被引用文献数
2

Konjo is the willpower necessary to endure suffering, and for making an effort, having become a word in daily use in society, as well as in sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the opportunity and the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo in Japanese society in the 1960s. Our study focused on three points: 1) Clarifying how the meaning of the word konjo changed in the 1960s, from its dictionary definition and usage in newspaper articles. 2) Clarifying the situation in which konjo became popular through the Tokyo Olympic Games, and its spread to the sports community and to society. 3) Considering the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo, and to propose a hypothesis that could account for it.   Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The meaning of konjo evolved from a negative context of “a fundamental character and mindset with which a person is born” to a positive context of “a strong, resilient character that cannot be suppressed” and “a strong motivation to accomplish an aim” at the beginning of the 1960s. 2) Konjo was considered to the spiritual keynote for athletes at the Tokyo Olympic Games. Hirobumi Daimatsu's “konjo theory” had the persuasive reason by winning “Oriental Witches” championship at the Tokyo Olympics. In view of these factors, we considered that konjo was interpreted as a popularized moral virtue by society, and impacted on both education and popular culture. 3) We considered that the concept of konjo became transformed and was used to promote competitiveness in sports at the Tokyo Olympics as part of the strategy for “character building”. It also played a role in bolstering human resources that played a key role in economic development during the 1960s, and thus was of strategic value. The considerations listed above show that the Tokyo Olympic Games played an important role in the transformation of the concept of konjo in the 1960s.
著者
半田 徹 加藤 浩人 長谷川 伸 岡田 純一 加藤 清忠
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.43-54, 2009-06-30 (Released:2009-11-05)
参考文献数
27

The purpose of this study was to examine muscle activities during seven traditional different free dynamic exercises designed to strengthen the abdominal muscles. Eleven adult men with experience in weight training were asked to perform three repetitions of LSU, BSU, TSU, TC, RSU, LR and SLR. Activities of the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), external abdominal oblique (EAO), and rectus femoris (RF) during the hip flexion and hip extension phases of each exercise were examined by electromyography (EMG) and analyzed using root mean square (RMS) values. The following results were obtained: (1) The mean RMS values for the URA were larger during the RSU and SLR than during the other five exercises. The value for the same muscle was larger during the TC exercise than during the LSU, BSU, TSU, and LR exercises. The mean RMS value for the LRA was largest during the RSU exercise, while that during the SLR exercise was larger than those during the LSU, BSU, TSU, TC, and LR exercises. (2) The mean RMS value for the EAO was largest during the SLR exercise, while that during the RSU exercise was second-largest and that during the TSU exercise was third-largest. The mean RMS values for the RF were larger during the RSU and SLR than during the other five exercises. The smallest value for this muscle was recorded during the TC exercise. (3) In most of the exercises, RMS in the hip flexion phase was larger than in the hip extension phase, and each muscle exhibited a knee flexion phase/knee extension phase ratio of between 0.5 and 0.8. However, the ratio for EAO and RF exceeded this range. (4) The muscle activity for the RF muscle in the RSU and SLR exercises was large, implying excessive stress for the lumbar vertebrae. Nevertheless, these exercises induced active muscle activity, and appeared desirable to perform with sufficient attention to safety.These results suggest that RSU and SLR exercises are the most effective movements for stimulating the URA, LRA and EAO. Moreover, TC is an effective movement for training the URA, and TSU is an effective movement for training.
著者
前田 奎 大山卞 圭悟 関 慶太郎 水島 淳 広瀬 健一 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18002, (Released:2019-01-21)
参考文献数
38

The purpose of this study was to investigate, using path analysis, causal relationships among motion factors for achieving a high release velocity in the male discus throw. The throwing motions of 61 male discus throwers were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis. Variables such as release velocity, velocities gained by each body segment, body segment velocity, body angle and angular velocity were obtained. The path model indicating the causal relationships among these factors was constructed by path analysis. The main results were as follows: Influences of velocities gained by each body segment on release velocity were largest for the arm, followed in order by the trunk and legs. Motion factors such as weight shift, acquisition of the velocity of the center of gravity, sweeping the legs, rotations of the hip and shoulder, twisting and untwisting of the trunk, acquisition of the velocity of the right knee and extension of the left knee had direct or indirect influences on the velocities gained by each body segment. Motion factors in the path model revealed causal relationships along the time sequence of the throwing motion. In addition, the path model in this study indicated the cause and effect structure of the throwing motion by which Japanese male discus throwers were able to achieve a high release velocity. The results of this study can be utilized for technical coaching of the discus throw based on causal relationships.
著者
夏原 隆之 中山 雅雄 加藤 貴昭 永野 智久 吉田 拓矢 佐々木 亮太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.71-85, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
4 3

Some of the mechanisms underlying superior performance in sports may be clarified by investigating the role of visual information in the execution of particular responses by expert athletes. The aim of this study was to examine how soccer players process visual information when executing a tactical pass in a 4 vs. 4 attacking play scenario. To identify the cognitive processes operating during task execution, we measured eye movement and correlated it with verbal reports from players. The subjects comprised 30 soccer players with differing proficiencies (15 “experts” and 15 “sub-experts”). 2 tests were carried out: a test to evaluate the level of passing skill, and a decision-making test to evaluate the reproducibility of tactical passing and the accuracy of passes aimed to specific locations. Eye movements were measured during the decision-making test. Furthermore, in each trial of the decision-making test, verbal reports were collected. These related to how and why participants decided to pass the ball to any particular player among the 4 attackers on screen and, in order to determine their best judgment, how they captured the play situation and what they paid attention to. The results revealed that for execution of the pass, the experts were significantly more proficient at passing accurately to the aimed location, and their passing judgment was more reproducible in comparison to the sub-experts, although both groups had a uniform level of passing skill in terms of pass execution. In addition, eye movement data obtained during pass execution confirmed that in the play observation phase, while experts maintained their line of sight on other objects, they also maintained a longer gaze on defensive players to identify gaps between them. Also in the ball approach phase, the experts maintained a longer gaze on the player who was judged to be the best choice for receiving an accurate pass. These observations suggest that the superior passing performance of expert soccer players is attributable to accurate and efficient extraction of visual information and utilizing it in the context of their accumulated knowledge base.
著者
戸邉 直人 苅山 靖 林 陵平 木越 清信 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18044, (Released:2019-10-28)
参考文献数
42
被引用文献数
1

In the take-off motion of the high jump, huge power exerted by the lower limb is required in a very short time. Consequently, to achieve the take-off motion, improvement of power exertion ability is important, and most high jumpers work to achieve this. However, the components of the kinetics that contribute to high jump performance are unknown. This study investigated lower limb joint kinetics during the take-off phase of the high jump and the relationships between kinetic variables and performance. Seven male high jumpers were investigated. Their take-off motions were filmed using an infrared camera (Vicon Motion System, 250 Hz), and the ground reaction force was recorded using a force platform (Kistler, 9287C, 1000Hz). The coefficients of correlation between the vertical velocity of the center of gravity of the whole body (CG) at the moment of take-off and kinetic variables were calculated. The following results were obtained: 1. The muscles involved in hip extension play a primary role in shock absorption at the moment of touchdown. Furthermore, the muscles involved in hip abduction, knee extension and ankle plantarflexion play a significant role in lifting the body in addition to the above functions. 2. The concentric power produced by hip abductors during the take-off motion may increase vertical velocity of the CG at the moment of take-off. 3. As it has been reported that single leg exercises impact the function of hip abductors, such exercises may improve take-off motion in the high jump. These results illustrate the characteristics of take-off motion in the high jump, and these may be studied further to plan effective training aimed at improving performance.
著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 春日 芳美
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.1203240225, (Released:2012-04-03)
参考文献数
40
被引用文献数
2

Konjo is the willpower necessary to endure suffering, and for making an effort, having become a word in daily use in society, as well as in sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the opportunity and the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo in Japanese society in the 1960s. Our study focused on three points: 1) Clarifying how the meaning of the word konjo changed in the 1960s, from its dictionary definition and usage in newspaper articles. 2) Clarifying the situation in which konjo became popular through the Tokyo Olympic Games, and its spread to the sports community and to society. 3) Considering the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo, and to propose a hypothesis that could account for it. Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The meaning of konjo evolved from a negative context of “a fundamental character and mindset with which a person is born” to a positive context of “a strong, resilient character that cannot be suppressed” and “a strong motivation to accomplish an aim” at the beginning of the 1960s. 2) Konjo was considered to the spiritual keynote for athletes at the Tokyo Olympic Games. Hirobumi Daimatsu's “konjo theory” had the persuasive reason by winning “Oriental Witches” championship at the Tokyo Olympics. In view of these factors, we considered that konjo was interpreted as a popularized moral virtue by society, and impacted on both education and popular culture. 3) We considered that the concept of konjo became transformed and was used to promote competitiveness in sports at the Tokyo Olympics as part of the strategy for “character building”. It also played a role in bolstering human resources that played a key role in economic development during the 1960s, and thus was of strategic value. The considerations listed above show that the Tokyo Olympic Games played an important role in the transformation of the concept of konjo in the 1960s.
著者
高橋 豪仁
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.139-150, 2006-03

Mass audiences can now commonly congregate in stadiums due to factors such as advanced transport, increased leisure time, and the growth of the mass media, which has improved spectator sports to create a vibrant and exciting atmosphere produced by the cheering of large numbers of fans who wish to watch players performing. Cheering is a critical component of spectator sports culture. In Japanese professional baseball there are private fan clubs that are central for the generation of cheering within the stadium during the game. The present study focused on the subculture of professional baseball fan clubs that are organized voluntarily by mass sports fans. This paper not only deals with the pattern of action and the value standards peculiar to such fan clubs, but also clarifies the dominant/parent culture that is central to the subculture, and how the subculture is created by adopting the dominant/parent culture through negotiation or conflict between members or groups based on the power resource of the subculture typical to their own. The data were collected through participant observation of private fan clubs of the Hiroshima Carp. It is inferred from descriptions about conflict and power relationships among the members or groups that the social resources are demo-commitment in the stadium and closeness with the baseball team and players, and that "flagwaving" and "leading", which are the typical forms of cheering behavior in stadiums, serve a ritualistic function of symbolizing the social power of the fan clubs. Furthermore, bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution are adopted into these distinctive patterns of action and value standards. The former is a dominant culture taken from the mainstream of modern society, and the latter is a parent culture located at a lower level of society. Multiple strata are evident in the subculture of fan clubs. This does not simply mean that the fan clubs have the characteristics of bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution, but illustrates that the subculture of private fan clubs is created by domesticating bureaucracy and the quasi-family institution to their own values standard and pattern of act about cheering.
著者
三津家 貴也 辻 俊樹 鍋倉 賢治
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18040, (Released:2019-02-26)
参考文献数
12
被引用文献数
1 1

An individual’s anaerobic capacity is evaluated in terms of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test. The present study was conducted to validate the method used for evaluation of anaerobic capacity using an index calculated from the aerobic test (a submaximal test conducted 5 or 6 times in 3-minute stages and a maximal test of 4-6 minutes). Seventeen well-trained Japanese middle- and long-distance runners including elite athletes participated in the aerobic test on one day and in the supramaximal test of 2-4 minutes on another day. The mean accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test was 30.6 ± 10.0 mlO2/kg, and the mean maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test was 55.7 ± 16.1 mlO2/kg. There was a significant positive relationship between accumulated oxygen deficit and the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (r=0.82, p<0.001). A stronger positive relationship between the above 2 parameters was evident in 10 middle distance runners (r=0.94, p<0.001). These results suggest that maximal accumulated oxygen deficit can be evaluated in terms of the accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test.
著者
渡邉 昌史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.3, pp.287-298, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
26

The People's Republic of China, which is a multiethnic country, considers policies focusing on ethnic minorities to be an imprtant national issue. The present study was designed to examine the identity of ethnic minorities by focusing on national meets involving traditional athletic sports among such ethnic minorities as one aspect of national policy. The 1st and 7th National Meets of Athletic Sports for Ethnic Minorities were held respectively in 1953 and in 2003, during which a change from modern sports to ethnic sports was recognized with respect to the sporting events emphasized. Subsequently, a change from those ethnic sports to post-ethnic sports was recognized. The participation of members of minority groups in these National Meets appeals to their ethnic identity, leading to the creation of a pan-ethnic minority identity. Since in addition to ethnic minorities, the Han race also participates in the National Meets, the Meets function as a cultural mechanism by which the Pan-ethnic minority identity is replaced by the Chinese ethnic identity, thus equating the Chinese ethnic identity with the official national identity. The representation of culture at the National Meets has been changing from a state in which “ethnic minorities represent different cultures” to one in which “ethnic minorities represent their own cultures.” These facts suggest that ethnic sports in China contribute to political and ethnic integration, whereby ethnic sports are useful for affirming ethnic identities that are manifested at various intensity levels, and that ethnic sports serve as a medium whereby changes in identity can take place.
著者
水島 淳 梶谷 亮輔 九鬼 靖太 柴田 篤志 前田 奎 大山 卞 圭悟 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.66, pp.703-714, 2021 (Released:2021-10-20)
参考文献数
28

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week barefoot sprint training program on sprint biomechanics and stretch-shortening cycle jump ability. Methods: Fourteen children with no experience in barefoot sprinting were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a barefoot training group (3 boys and 4 girls; age, 11.0 ± 0.8 years-old; height, 143.1 ± 8.4 cm; body mass, 35.4 ± 5.6 kg; shoe mass, 0.17 ± 0.02 kg) and a control group (3 boys and 4 girls; age, 11.0 ± 0.8 years-old; height, 142.6 ± 8.2 cm; body mass, 34.4 ± 6.4 kg; shoe mass, 0.18 ± 0.01 kg). The 4-week intervention consisted 40 minutes of sprint training per weekly session using the allocated footwear. Before and after the intervention, 2-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the 50-m maximal sprint under both shod and barefoot conditions, and the countermovement jump and 5 repeated rebound jumping tests were performed by both groups. Pre- to post-test changes in spatio-temporal parameters and sprint kinematics, and jump heights for both jump types, and the contact time and rebound jump index for the rebound jump, were analysed using 2-way mixed ANOVA. Results and Discussion: After the 4-week intervention, a higher step frequency (p <0.01), a longer step length (p <0.05), and a higher sprint velocity (p <0.01) were observed in the barefoot training group, although no change was observed in the foot strike patterns and the swing leg velocity. The barefoot training group showed a higher rebound jump index (p <0.05) and a shorter contact time (p <0.01), while no differences were evident in the counter-movement jump height. These results suggest that 4-week barefoot sprint training seems to be an effective strategy for improving certain aspects of sprint biomechanics and for development of fast stretch-shortening cycle ability in children.
著者
劉 暢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17021, (Released:2018-03-02)
参考文献数
41

The present study investigated the historical transition in the shape of the character “武”, which appears in both Japanese budo (武道) and Chinese martial arts (武術). A review of related studies conducted in Japan and China revealed that previous studies had focused mainly on the original shape and original meaning of “武”and transitions in its usage. Therefore this study can be considered to complement previous research on the character “武”. ・ The study mainly analyzed the shape of“武”in Jia Gu Wen (inscriptions on animal bones and tortoise carapaces, 甲骨文), Jin Wen (inscriptions on ancient bronze objects, 金文), seal script (篆書), the Chu character (楚 文字), clerical script (隷書) , and regular script (楷書) through carved stones, tombstones, bamboo slips and other related material. The main results were as follows. ・ The earliest representation of “武”in Jia Gu Wen appeared in the Wu Ding (武丁) period (1250 BC), while the earliest “武” in Jin Wen appeared in the Di Xin (帝辛) period (1075-1046 BC). In both Jia Gu Wen and Jin Wen, the character “武” consists of two parts: “戈” and “止”. In Jia Gu Wen, the “戈” part is located above “止”, whereas in Jin Wen “戈” is located on the right upper side of “止”. ・ From seal script to clerical script, the character “武” changed to a great extent. Such a change is referred to as clericalization (隷変). Therefore, the Chu character, which was written on a bamboo slip by hand around the Zhan Guo period (475-221 BC), was used to identify the consistent shape of the character of “武”. Specifically, most of the curve stroke of “止” and “戈” became a straight line and the third stroke of “戈” dwindled, while the positions of “止” and “戈” were slightly changed. ・ From clerical script to regular script, the character “武” changed further, especially in the “戈” component. Specifically, the second stroke of “武” changed from curved to straight. Another change was that the 1st and 7th strokes in “武” became separated from each other. Chinese martial arts began to exhibit an atheistic aspect from the Tang dynasty (618-907). The changes that appear in regular script for “武” shows fading of the recognition that “武” is made up of “止” and “戈”, as well as that “戈” represents “weapon” or “combat”. These are considered the reasons why the shape of “武” changed after the Tang dynasty.
著者
山中 祥子 関矢 寛史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.721-730, 2013 (Released:2013-12-07)
参考文献数
15

The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge of eating disorders among female college athletes. A questionnaire was distributed to female college athletes who specialized in sports with an increased risk for the development of eating disorders (N=100), those specializing in other sports (N=68), and those not belonging to varsity teams (N=79). The questionnaire consisted of the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and knowledge tests on risk factors, symptoms, and treatments/coping strategies. Although total scores for correct knowledge did not differ among the groups, the score for incorrect knowledge of treatments/coping strategies was higher in both of the athlete groups than in the non-athlete group. In addition, athletes with EAT-26 scores of 20 or more had more correct knowledge of risk factors but also had more incorrect knowledge for all subscales than athletes with EAT-26 scores of 10 or less, indicating that athletes with abnormal eating attitudes had a greater amount of incorrect knowledge.
著者
鈴木 秀人
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.65, pp.205-223, 2020 (Released:2020-03-17)
参考文献数
61
被引用文献数
2 1

In 2012, a high school student who was the captain of a school basketball team committed suicide after suffering repeated corporal punishment from the head coach, who was a physical education teacher. This sort of tragic incident always prompts discussion about the current state of Japanese sports clubs. However, although such incidents occur repeatedly, Japan has not been able to eradicate violence in sports clubs. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reasons why Japanese society has tolerated corporal punishment by coaches or seniors in sports clubs, focusing on a popular belief that the roots of these practices lie in behavioral patterns that were prevalent in the old Japanese military during the Second World War. Initially, the paper proposes reasons why many people in Japanese society have believed and shared this view for a long time, although it has not been proven. Secondly, an attempt is made to reveal this as a problem for ordinary people who have consciously or subconsciously accepted corporal punishment as an intrinsic aspect of sports clubs, rather than considering it as an issue specifically for coaches or seniors. The following points were clarified: 1) For critics of corporal punishment, the “military origin theory” supports their opinions powerfully. Because this logic demonstrates the relationship between sports clubs and the old military, it is able to emphasize the problematic and inhuman nature of corporal punishment in sports clubs. This is one explanation for why this belief has been shared by many Japanese people for so long. 2) The “military origin theory” is a way of shifting the responsibility for violence in sports clubs away from the perpetrators. This has been supported by the general feeling of Japanese ordinary people against the old Japanese military. 3) The existence of violence in sports clubs reflects a degree of maturity in the general public viewpoint about sports by a considerable proportion of Japanese who do not or can not distinguish between hard training and violent behavior. Consequently, this belief negates the chances that many Japanese people consider corporal punishment in sports clubs to be their own problem.
著者
中澤 篤史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.67, pp.501-517, 2022 (Released:2022-07-07)
参考文献数
29

The overabundance of extracurricular sports activities in Japan has been called into question. Its symbol is the Nippon Junior High School Tournament held by Nippon Junior High School Physical Culture Association. How was this event established? The purpose of this study was to analyze the process by which the tournament was established and to examine the relationship between education and competition in school sports. Previous studies have sought the reasons for the establishment of the national championships with the relaxation of standards for external competitions in accordance with the demands of sports federations, and have viewed the process as one in which competition disparaged education. This approach assumes that education and competition have a dichotomous relationship that is mutually incompatible, and the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism has been viewed as a specific issue. However, this view does not allow us to understand why the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, which had been trying to suppress the national championships, turned around and held the Nippon Junior High School Tournament. In this study, we reviewed this issue from the perspective of the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, and clarified the active role it played in reorganizing the national championships in order to solve inherent educational problems, while competing with the sports federations that began holding the national championships. For the Junior High School Physical Culture Association, the process of establishing national championships was not a process in which athletic competition disparaged education, but one in which education was achieved through competition. How did it interpret the conflict between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism? The Junior High School Physical Culture Association did not abandon educative egalitarianism while finding significance in competitive elitism. Rather, it placed more emphasis on the former in order to justify the significance of competitive selection. The national championships must be open to all students equally, not just to a few elite athletes, and they were interpreted as meaningful because the winners were selected after all students had participated. In this way, the conflicts between educative egalitarianism and competitive elitism were overcome, and as a result, the Nippon Junior High School Tournament was established. This was a historical turning point in the “overheating” of junior high school sports.
著者
工藤 龍太 志々田 文明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.453-469, 2010 (Released:2010-12-28)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
2

The main purpose of this study was to verify the process of formation and development of the concept of aiki used by Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, and his disciples. The main points can be summarized as follows: 1. The term aiki has been used to refer to particular martial arts techniques and to a spiritual state that can be experienced by practicing Aikido. Morihei taught aiki as a technique, as shown in the memorandum of the Japanese Imperial Navy Admiral Isamu Takeshita around 1930. Kisshomaru Ueshiba, Morihei Ueshiba's son, also introduced these techniques in his book, “Techniques of Aikido” (1962), etc. However, neither Morehei Ueshiba nor his son explained about aiki in detail. Kenji Tomiki and Gozo Shioda used aiki as a term of technique, but they do not seem to have taught techniques under the name of aiki. 2. Onisaburo Deguchi, the head of Omoto-kyo, used the expressions “the union between a kami and a mortal” in 1921 and “the great love of the kami” in 1935, which Morihei later emphasized in relation to aiki. Omoto-kyo heavily influenced the building of Morihei's thoughts on aiki and Aikido. Aiki was likened to the great love of the Universe, Heaven and Earth, or the kami who nurtures all nature and mortals. In short, a) aiki is the union between the kami as love, and mortals, hence the practice of aiki is the purification of mind and body; b) the practice of Aikido creates a paradise for mortals on earth; c) because the kami does not oppose anyone, a practitioner does not oppose in Aikido. Morihei's thought influenced the policy of the succeeding organization of Aikido through Kisshomaru. 3. Morihei's four main pupils inherited his thoughts through several arrangements. Shioda explained aiki as “a technique for following the laws of nature”. Tohei insisted that aiki is “the union between the ki in heaven and earth and a mortal”. Sunadomari interpreted aiki as a combative technique and a divine work. Tomiki understood the term in two ways: one is a technique that falls into the category of kuzushi (balance-breaking), and the other is the unity of ki (energy) between nature and man. As to the way that Aikido should develop in the future, we need to study further Morihei's thoughts and their development under his pupils.
著者
勝田 茂 高松 薫 田中 守 小泉 順子 久野 譜也 田渕 健一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.34, no.2, pp.141-149, 1989-09-01 (Released:2017-09-27)
被引用文献数
1

Attempts were made to clarify whether or not fiber composition of the m. vastus lateralis could be predicted with running performance. Biopsy samples from 32 well-trained and 17 untrained adult males were examined for the percentage area of fast-twitch (FT) and slow-twitch (ST) fibers which might be related to the physical performance better than the fiber type distribution. In addition, each subject completed 50-m sprint and 12-min run tests. A multiple regression analysis revealed that in the trained males predictive accuracy (R^2) for the percentage area of FT fibers (% areaFT) from the ratio of a 50-m sprint speed to a 12-min run speed (50 m・S/12 min・S) was higher than that from most of other variables,e.g. 50 m・S, 12 min・S, or the combination of 50 m・S and 12 min・S; R^2 of 50 m・S/12 min・S was 80.3%(p&lt0.05). A positive correlation between 50 m・S/12 min・S and %areaFT also existed for the untrained subjects (R^2=63.7%, p&lt0.05). The linear regression equations of %areaFT (Y) on 50 m・S/12 min・S (X)were Y=-68.6 + 76.2X (r=0.896, p&lt0.05) and Y=-47.5 + 61.1X (r=0.798, p&lt0.05) for the trained and untrained males, respectively. There was no significant difference in the regression equations between the trained and untrained males. For all subjects, the equation was Y=-59.8 + 69.8X (r=0.876, p&lt0.05) and the standard error of estimate of %areaFT on 50 m・S/12 min . S was 8.86%. These results suggest that the performances of a 50-m sprint and a 12-min run are valuable indicators in, accurately, easily and noninvasively, predicting the percentage area of FT and ST fibers of the m. vastus lateralis from adult male.