著者
高橋 豪仁
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.139-150, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
37

Mass audiences can now commonly congregate in stadiums due to factors such as advanced transport, increased leisure time, and the growth of the mass media, which has improved spectator sports to create a vibrant and exciting atmosphere produced by the cheering of large numbers of fans who wish to watch players performing. Cheering is a critical component of spectator sports culture. In Japanese professional baseball there are private fan clubs that are central for the generation of cheering within the stadium during the game. The present study focused on the subculture of professional baseball fan clubs that are organized voluntarily by mass sports fans. This paper not only deals with the pattern of action and the value standards peculiar to such fan clubs, but also clarifies the dominant/parent culture that is central to the subculture, and how the subculture is created by adopting the dominant/parent culture through negotiation or conflict between members or groups based on the power resource of the subculture typical to their own. The data were collected through participant observation of private fan clubs of the Hiroshima Carp. It is inferred from descriptions about conflict and power relationships among the members or groups that the social resources are demo-commitment in the stadium and closeness with the baseball team and players, and that “flag-waving” and “leading”, which are the typical forms of cheering behavior in stadiums, serve a ritualistic function of symbolizing the social power of the fan clubs. Furthermore, bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution are adopted into these distinctive patterns of action and value standards. The former is a dominant culture taken from the mainstream of modern society, and the latter is a parent culture located at a lower level of society. Multiple strata are evident in the subculture of fan clubs. This does not simply mean that the fan clubs have the characteristics of bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution, but illustrates that the subculture of private fan clubs is created by domesticating bureaucracy and the quasi-family institution to their own values standard and pattern of act about cheering.
著者
岡部 祐介 友添 秀則 春日 芳美
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.129-142, 2012 (Released:2012-06-02)
参考文献数
72

Konjo is the willpower necessary to endure suffering, and for making an effort, having become a word in daily use in society, as well as in sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the opportunity and the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo in Japanese society in the 1960s. Our study focused on three points: 1) Clarifying how the meaning of the word konjo changed in the 1960s, from its dictionary definition and usage in newspaper articles. 2) Clarifying the situation in which konjo became popular through the Tokyo Olympic Games, and its spread to the sports community and to society. 3) Considering the factors responsible for the transformation of konjo, and to propose a hypothesis that could account for it.   Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The meaning of konjo evolved from a negative context of “a fundamental character and mindset with which a person is born” to a positive context of “a strong, resilient character that cannot be suppressed” and “a strong motivation to accomplish an aim” at the beginning of the 1960s. 2) Konjo was considered to the spiritual keynote for athletes at the Tokyo Olympic Games. Hirobumi Daimatsu's “konjo theory” had the persuasive reason by winning “Oriental Witches” championship at the Tokyo Olympics. In view of these factors, we considered that konjo was interpreted as a popularized moral virtue by society, and impacted on both education and popular culture. 3) We considered that the concept of konjo became transformed and was used to promote competitiveness in sports at the Tokyo Olympics as part of the strategy for “character building”. It also played a role in bolstering human resources that played a key role in economic development during the 1960s, and thus was of strategic value. The considerations listed above show that the Tokyo Olympic Games played an important role in the transformation of the concept of konjo in the 1960s.
著者
前田 奎 大山卞 圭悟 関 慶太郎 水島 淳 広瀬 健一 尾縣 貢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18002, (Released:2019-01-21)
参考文献数
38

The purpose of this study was to investigate, using path analysis, causal relationships among motion factors for achieving a high release velocity in the male discus throw. The throwing motions of 61 male discus throwers were analyzed using three-dimensional motion analysis. Variables such as release velocity, velocities gained by each body segment, body segment velocity, body angle and angular velocity were obtained. The path model indicating the causal relationships among these factors was constructed by path analysis. The main results were as follows: Influences of velocities gained by each body segment on release velocity were largest for the arm, followed in order by the trunk and legs. Motion factors such as weight shift, acquisition of the velocity of the center of gravity, sweeping the legs, rotations of the hip and shoulder, twisting and untwisting of the trunk, acquisition of the velocity of the right knee and extension of the left knee had direct or indirect influences on the velocities gained by each body segment. Motion factors in the path model revealed causal relationships along the time sequence of the throwing motion. In addition, the path model in this study indicated the cause and effect structure of the throwing motion by which Japanese male discus throwers were able to achieve a high release velocity. The results of this study can be utilized for technical coaching of the discus throw based on causal relationships.
著者
半田 徹 加藤 浩人 長谷川 伸 岡田 純一 加藤 清忠
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.54, no.1, pp.43-54, 2009-06-30 (Released:2009-11-05)
参考文献数
27

The purpose of this study was to examine muscle activities during seven traditional different free dynamic exercises designed to strengthen the abdominal muscles. Eleven adult men with experience in weight training were asked to perform three repetitions of LSU, BSU, TSU, TC, RSU, LR and SLR. Activities of the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), external abdominal oblique (EAO), and rectus femoris (RF) during the hip flexion and hip extension phases of each exercise were examined by electromyography (EMG) and analyzed using root mean square (RMS) values. The following results were obtained: (1) The mean RMS values for the URA were larger during the RSU and SLR than during the other five exercises. The value for the same muscle was larger during the TC exercise than during the LSU, BSU, TSU, and LR exercises. The mean RMS value for the LRA was largest during the RSU exercise, while that during the SLR exercise was larger than those during the LSU, BSU, TSU, TC, and LR exercises. (2) The mean RMS value for the EAO was largest during the SLR exercise, while that during the RSU exercise was second-largest and that during the TSU exercise was third-largest. The mean RMS values for the RF were larger during the RSU and SLR than during the other five exercises. The smallest value for this muscle was recorded during the TC exercise. (3) In most of the exercises, RMS in the hip flexion phase was larger than in the hip extension phase, and each muscle exhibited a knee flexion phase/knee extension phase ratio of between 0.5 and 0.8. However, the ratio for EAO and RF exceeded this range. (4) The muscle activity for the RF muscle in the RSU and SLR exercises was large, implying excessive stress for the lumbar vertebrae. Nevertheless, these exercises induced active muscle activity, and appeared desirable to perform with sufficient attention to safety.These results suggest that RSU and SLR exercises are the most effective movements for stimulating the URA, LRA and EAO. Moreover, TC is an effective movement for training the URA, and TSU is an effective movement for training.
著者
夏原 隆之 中山 雅雄 加藤 貴昭 永野 智久 吉田 拓矢 佐々木 亮太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.60, no.1, pp.71-85, 2015 (Released:2015-06-13)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
2

Some of the mechanisms underlying superior performance in sports may be clarified by investigating the role of visual information in the execution of particular responses by expert athletes. The aim of this study was to examine how soccer players process visual information when executing a tactical pass in a 4 vs. 4 attacking play scenario. To identify the cognitive processes operating during task execution, we measured eye movement and correlated it with verbal reports from players. The subjects comprised 30 soccer players with differing proficiencies (15 “experts” and 15 “sub-experts”). 2 tests were carried out: a test to evaluate the level of passing skill, and a decision-making test to evaluate the reproducibility of tactical passing and the accuracy of passes aimed to specific locations. Eye movements were measured during the decision-making test. Furthermore, in each trial of the decision-making test, verbal reports were collected. These related to how and why participants decided to pass the ball to any particular player among the 4 attackers on screen and, in order to determine their best judgment, how they captured the play situation and what they paid attention to. The results revealed that for execution of the pass, the experts were significantly more proficient at passing accurately to the aimed location, and their passing judgment was more reproducible in comparison to the sub-experts, although both groups had a uniform level of passing skill in terms of pass execution. In addition, eye movement data obtained during pass execution confirmed that in the play observation phase, while experts maintained their line of sight on other objects, they also maintained a longer gaze on defensive players to identify gaps between them. Also in the ball approach phase, the experts maintained a longer gaze on the player who was judged to be the best choice for receiving an accurate pass. These observations suggest that the superior passing performance of expert soccer players is attributable to accurate and efficient extraction of visual information and utilizing it in the context of their accumulated knowledge base.
著者
高橋 豪仁
出版者
社団法人日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.2, pp.139-150, 2006-03

Mass audiences can now commonly congregate in stadiums due to factors such as advanced transport, increased leisure time, and the growth of the mass media, which has improved spectator sports to create a vibrant and exciting atmosphere produced by the cheering of large numbers of fans who wish to watch players performing. Cheering is a critical component of spectator sports culture. In Japanese professional baseball there are private fan clubs that are central for the generation of cheering within the stadium during the game. The present study focused on the subculture of professional baseball fan clubs that are organized voluntarily by mass sports fans. This paper not only deals with the pattern of action and the value standards peculiar to such fan clubs, but also clarifies the dominant/parent culture that is central to the subculture, and how the subculture is created by adopting the dominant/parent culture through negotiation or conflict between members or groups based on the power resource of the subculture typical to their own. The data were collected through participant observation of private fan clubs of the Hiroshima Carp. It is inferred from descriptions about conflict and power relationships among the members or groups that the social resources are demo-commitment in the stadium and closeness with the baseball team and players, and that "flagwaving" and "leading", which are the typical forms of cheering behavior in stadiums, serve a ritualistic function of symbolizing the social power of the fan clubs. Furthermore, bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution are adopted into these distinctive patterns of action and value standards. The former is a dominant culture taken from the mainstream of modern society, and the latter is a parent culture located at a lower level of society. Multiple strata are evident in the subculture of fan clubs. This does not simply mean that the fan clubs have the characteristics of bureaucracy and yakuza's quasi-family institution, but illustrates that the subculture of private fan clubs is created by domesticating bureaucracy and the quasi-family institution to their own values standard and pattern of act about cheering.
著者
渡邉 昌史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.51, no.3, pp.287-298, 2006 (Released:2008-01-25)
参考文献数
26

The People's Republic of China, which is a multiethnic country, considers policies focusing on ethnic minorities to be an imprtant national issue. The present study was designed to examine the identity of ethnic minorities by focusing on national meets involving traditional athletic sports among such ethnic minorities as one aspect of national policy. The 1st and 7th National Meets of Athletic Sports for Ethnic Minorities were held respectively in 1953 and in 2003, during which a change from modern sports to ethnic sports was recognized with respect to the sporting events emphasized. Subsequently, a change from those ethnic sports to post-ethnic sports was recognized. The participation of members of minority groups in these National Meets appeals to their ethnic identity, leading to the creation of a pan-ethnic minority identity. Since in addition to ethnic minorities, the Han race also participates in the National Meets, the Meets function as a cultural mechanism by which the Pan-ethnic minority identity is replaced by the Chinese ethnic identity, thus equating the Chinese ethnic identity with the official national identity. The representation of culture at the National Meets has been changing from a state in which “ethnic minorities represent different cultures” to one in which “ethnic minorities represent their own cultures.” These facts suggest that ethnic sports in China contribute to political and ethnic integration, whereby ethnic sports are useful for affirming ethnic identities that are manifested at various intensity levels, and that ethnic sports serve as a medium whereby changes in identity can take place.
著者
劉 暢
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17021, (Released:2018-03-02)
参考文献数
41

The present study investigated the historical transition in the shape of the character “武”, which appears in both Japanese budo (武道) and Chinese martial arts (武術). A review of related studies conducted in Japan and China revealed that previous studies had focused mainly on the original shape and original meaning of “武”and transitions in its usage. Therefore this study can be considered to complement previous research on the character “武”. ・ The study mainly analyzed the shape of“武”in Jia Gu Wen (inscriptions on animal bones and tortoise carapaces, 甲骨文), Jin Wen (inscriptions on ancient bronze objects, 金文), seal script (篆書), the Chu character (楚 文字), clerical script (隷書) , and regular script (楷書) through carved stones, tombstones, bamboo slips and other related material. The main results were as follows. ・ The earliest representation of “武”in Jia Gu Wen appeared in the Wu Ding (武丁) period (1250 BC), while the earliest “武” in Jin Wen appeared in the Di Xin (帝辛) period (1075-1046 BC). In both Jia Gu Wen and Jin Wen, the character “武” consists of two parts: “戈” and “止”. In Jia Gu Wen, the “戈” part is located above “止”, whereas in Jin Wen “戈” is located on the right upper side of “止”. ・ From seal script to clerical script, the character “武” changed to a great extent. Such a change is referred to as clericalization (隷変). Therefore, the Chu character, which was written on a bamboo slip by hand around the Zhan Guo period (475-221 BC), was used to identify the consistent shape of the character of “武”. Specifically, most of the curve stroke of “止” and “戈” became a straight line and the third stroke of “戈” dwindled, while the positions of “止” and “戈” were slightly changed. ・ From clerical script to regular script, the character “武” changed further, especially in the “戈” component. Specifically, the second stroke of “武” changed from curved to straight. Another change was that the 1st and 7th strokes in “武” became separated from each other. Chinese martial arts began to exhibit an atheistic aspect from the Tang dynasty (618-907). The changes that appear in regular script for “武” shows fading of the recognition that “武” is made up of “止” and “戈”, as well as that “戈” represents “weapon” or “combat”. These are considered the reasons why the shape of “武” changed after the Tang dynasty.
著者
山中 祥子 関矢 寛史
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.2, pp.721-730, 2013 (Released:2013-12-07)
参考文献数
15

The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge of eating disorders among female college athletes. A questionnaire was distributed to female college athletes who specialized in sports with an increased risk for the development of eating disorders (N=100), those specializing in other sports (N=68), and those not belonging to varsity teams (N=79). The questionnaire consisted of the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and knowledge tests on risk factors, symptoms, and treatments/coping strategies. Although total scores for correct knowledge did not differ among the groups, the score for incorrect knowledge of treatments/coping strategies was higher in both of the athlete groups than in the non-athlete group. In addition, athletes with EAT-26 scores of 20 or more had more correct knowledge of risk factors but also had more incorrect knowledge for all subscales than athletes with EAT-26 scores of 10 or less, indicating that athletes with abnormal eating attitudes had a greater amount of incorrect knowledge.
著者
三津家 貴也 辻 俊樹 鍋倉 賢治
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18040, (Released:2019-02-26)
参考文献数
12

An individual’s anaerobic capacity is evaluated in terms of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test. The present study was conducted to validate the method used for evaluation of anaerobic capacity using an index calculated from the aerobic test (a submaximal test conducted 5 or 6 times in 3-minute stages and a maximal test of 4-6 minutes). Seventeen well-trained Japanese middle- and long-distance runners including elite athletes participated in the aerobic test on one day and in the supramaximal test of 2-4 minutes on another day. The mean accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test was 30.6 ± 10.0 mlO2/kg, and the mean maximal accumulated oxygen deficit in the supramaximal test was 55.7 ± 16.1 mlO2/kg. There was a significant positive relationship between accumulated oxygen deficit and the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (r=0.82, p<0.001). A stronger positive relationship between the above 2 parameters was evident in 10 middle distance runners (r=0.94, p<0.001). These results suggest that maximal accumulated oxygen deficit can be evaluated in terms of the accumulated oxygen deficit in the maximal test.
著者
工藤 龍太 志々田 文明
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.55, no.2, pp.453-469, 2010 (Released:2010-12-28)
参考文献数
50
被引用文献数
2

The main purpose of this study was to verify the process of formation and development of the concept of aiki used by Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, and his disciples. The main points can be summarized as follows: 1. The term aiki has been used to refer to particular martial arts techniques and to a spiritual state that can be experienced by practicing Aikido. Morihei taught aiki as a technique, as shown in the memorandum of the Japanese Imperial Navy Admiral Isamu Takeshita around 1930. Kisshomaru Ueshiba, Morihei Ueshiba's son, also introduced these techniques in his book, “Techniques of Aikido” (1962), etc. However, neither Morehei Ueshiba nor his son explained about aiki in detail. Kenji Tomiki and Gozo Shioda used aiki as a term of technique, but they do not seem to have taught techniques under the name of aiki. 2. Onisaburo Deguchi, the head of Omoto-kyo, used the expressions “the union between a kami and a mortal” in 1921 and “the great love of the kami” in 1935, which Morihei later emphasized in relation to aiki. Omoto-kyo heavily influenced the building of Morihei's thoughts on aiki and Aikido. Aiki was likened to the great love of the Universe, Heaven and Earth, or the kami who nurtures all nature and mortals. In short, a) aiki is the union between the kami as love, and mortals, hence the practice of aiki is the purification of mind and body; b) the practice of Aikido creates a paradise for mortals on earth; c) because the kami does not oppose anyone, a practitioner does not oppose in Aikido. Morihei's thought influenced the policy of the succeeding organization of Aikido through Kisshomaru. 3. Morihei's four main pupils inherited his thoughts through several arrangements. Shioda explained aiki as “a technique for following the laws of nature”. Tohei insisted that aiki is “the union between the ki in heaven and earth and a mortal”. Sunadomari interpreted aiki as a combative technique and a divine work. Tomiki understood the term in two ways: one is a technique that falls into the category of kuzushi (balance-breaking), and the other is the unity of ki (energy) between nature and man. As to the way that Aikido should develop in the future, we need to study further Morihei's thoughts and their development under his pupils.
著者
髙山 史徳 森 寿仁 安藤 真由子 山本 正嘉
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.15032, (Released:2015-09-02)
参考文献数
33

The main purpose of this study was to investigate anthropometry and body composition in 26 male ultramountain runners who participated in Trans Japan Alps Race 2014, a multi-stage ultramountain running race over 415 km to be covered within 5-8 days. The second purpose was to investigate the changes in skinfold thickness during the race. Before the race, all participants were examined in terms of body weight, BMI, skinfold thickness at 8 sites and estimated percentage body fat. In addition, the finishers (n=14) were re-examined in the post-race period. The main findings are summarized below.1. The participants had a mean (±SD) body weight of 62.3±5.1 kg, a BMI of 21.5±1.4 kg/m2, a sum of 8 skinfold thickness of 57.7±15.5 mm, and an estimated percentage body fat of 12.0±2.4%. There were no significant differences in any parameters between the finishers and the non-finishers.2. The sum of 8 skinfold thickness in the finishers was significantly reduced by 11.3% after the race (Pre : 55.0±13.6 mm, Post : 48.8±12.1 mm), representing a dramatic response in comparison with a previous study that investigated ultramarathon runners in a 100-km ultramarathon race (0.9%).
著者
谷中 拓哉 中里 浩介 藤田 善也 石毛 勇介
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.18050, (Released:2019-03-18)
参考文献数
23

Cross-country skiers perform over a long distance using poles and skis. Physical fitness, in terms of factors such as VO2max and muscle strength, skiing technique and race strategy are important for winning competitions. To plan the race strategy, investigations of the course profile and race analysis are needed. The purposes of this study were to investigate cross-country skiing course profiles which were planned for the Winter Olympic Games at Peyongchang, and to analyze the men’s 15km+15km World Cup skiathlon race (SA) as a pre-competition event. A cross-country skier followed the classical and skating courses using a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) antenna. The antenna instantly measured the latitude, longitude and height of the skier on the courses. The coordinate values on a plane were calculated from latitude and longitude, after the inclination was then calculated from the coordinate values and height every 10 m. The overall finish time and transit time at 24 points for 12 skiers in SA were retrieved from the Official Home Page of the International Ski Federation (FIS), and the segment times among the various points were calculated. Three segment times formed a lap, and each segment speed was calculated by dividing the segment distance by the segment time. For the classical course profile, the distance was 3819 m and the maximum inclination was 18.6%. In contrast, for the skating course, the distance was 3777 m and the maximum inclination was 20.6%. No correlation was found between the overall finish time and the segment times for the classical course. This result was attributable to small variations in the lap times for the classical course because of the skiers’ use strategy, checking among competitors, and the mass-start. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between the overall finish time and the segment times on skating. In skating, the segment speeds from the final phase of the 2nd lap to the middle phase of the 3rd lap indicated deceleration relative to the 1st lap. These results suggest that gliding on a skating course in a short time is important for shortening the overall finish-time. Especially, it is important to minimize the deceleration of the 2nd and 3rd lap segment speed. The race pattern for the Olympic Games was similar to that of pre-competition, except for the time taken. These results indicate that pre-competition race analysis is useful for devising a strategy for target competition.
著者
星川 佳広 飯田 朝美 古森 政作 中馬 健太郎 澁川 賢一 菊池 忍
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.57, no.1, pp.249-260, 2012 (Released:2012-06-02)
参考文献数
31
被引用文献数
1 1

Previous studies have indicated that short-distance sprint ability is essential for achieving a high competitive level in soccer. However, there are no systematic data by which sprint ability in Japanese soccer players can be evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop an age-related evaluation chart for 20-meter sprinting time in male soccer players. The subjects were 807 high-level soccer players between 5th grade of elementary school and high school as well as 120 senior players including professionals. The sprinting time was measured on a grassed field using infrared photocell sensors with the subjects wearing soccer shoes. The sensors detected the release of the subject's rear foot at the start and the passing of the subject's trunk through the 20-meter position. The average time for field players decreased from 3.69(0.14) s for 5th graders to 2.98(0.08) s for seniors. The value for goalkeepers decreased from 3.79(0.12) to 3.07(0.11) s. Using the averages and standard deviations, an evaluation chart classifying the 20-meter sprinting time into 5 levels was presented for each age group. In addition, another chart taking birth date into account was also developed for 7th and 8th graders, since boys born earlier showed an advantage in the sprinting time. The time ranking for the fastest group in field players was less than 2.93 s for 9th graders and 2.86 s in seniors, resulting in a difference of only 0.07 s. In contrast, the value ranking for the slowest group exceeded 3.31 s for 9th graders and 3.11 s for seniors, resulting in a difference of 0.20 s. This implies that soccer players having lower sprint ability may drop out from the selection process as they get older. This evaluation chart can be useful for identifying the short-distance sprinting ability of soccer players in each age group.
著者
松倉 啓太 浅井 武
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.58, no.1, pp.277-296, 2013 (Released:2013-06-08)
参考文献数
15

It is believed that the success of the goalkeeper (GK) in saving difficult shots by diving is a key factor in soccer because it can influence the outcome of the game to a large extent. However, the most appropriate way to exert force during the diving motion according to the course of the shot from either leg is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the fundamental mechanism of a GK's diving motion according to the height and distance of the shot. We performed an experiment in which 11 university GKs participated. They were asked to dive toward balls set at 3 different heights located a short or a long distance from the GK. By examining the GKs' diving motions, we calculated the ground reaction force (GRF), joint angular velocity, and joint torque. The results indicated that the magnitude of the GRF under both legs and the direction of the GRF under the ball-side (BS) leg differed with the ball height. We also found that a higher dive by the GKs corresponded to a larger counter-movement of the contralateral-side (CS) leg and a higher stopping power of the BS leg in order to increase the vertical velocity, and more exertion of extension torques at the hip and foot for takeoff compared to those in lower dives. Furthermore, a lower dive of the GKs corresponded to a larger angular impulse of the BS hip adduction after the BS leg touched the ground. These findings suggest that during the takeoff part of the diving motion of a GK, depending on the ball height, the CS leg controls the magnitude of power and the BS leg controls both the magnitude and the direction of power in order for the GK to dive directly towards the ball.
著者
永澤 健 白石 聖
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.56, no.2, pp.423-433, 2011 (Released:2011-12-28)
参考文献数
27
被引用文献数
2 3

In this study, we examined the effects of static stretching (SST) for different durations on muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) and muscle blood flow (BFmus) in the stretched muscles during and after SST. Nine healthy male subjects received passive SST of the wrist flexors. SST was performed for 10, 30, and 60 s. The StO2 and BFmus in the forearm flexor muscles were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. BFmus was determined from the rate of increase in total hemoglobin during venous occlusion. StO2 decreased immediately at the start of stretching, and thereafter kept decreasing until the end of SST. StO2 replenished rapidly after completion of SST and remained above the resting level during the recovery period. For all 3 durations of SST, the peak value of StO2 during the recovery period after SST showed a significant increase above the resting value (p<0.01) (10-s SST: 72.5±2.8%, 30-s SST: 72.5±1.8%, 60-s SST: 73.0±2.2%). There was no significant difference in the increase in the peak values of StO2 after SST among the 3 SST durations. For all durations of SST, BFmus after SST increased significantly above the resting level (p<0.01) (10-s SST: 2.6±1.2 fold, 30-s SST: 2.8±1.6 fold, 60-s SST: 2.9±1.0 fold), but there was no significant difference in the increase of BFmus after SST among the 3 SST durations. These results show that SST of wrist flexors for 10 s, 30 s, and 60 s induced an increase in StO2 and BFmus after SST, but the increase in StO2 and BFmus was not affected by SST duration.
著者
宮西 智久 森本 吉謙
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.52, no.4, pp.361-381, 2007 (Released:2007-08-08)
参考文献数
46
被引用文献数
3 2

A three-dimensional (3D) videography study was performed to clarify the mechanical effects of a change of pitching motion from an overhand throw (OH style) to a three-quarter throw (TQ style). Two collegiate pitchers (subjects A and B) who normally used the OH style participated. They were requested to change their original OH style into the TQ style. To do this, they were subjected to a one-year skill training program based on biomechanical principles and on knowledge such as the stretch-shortening cycle theory, muscle force-velocity relationship, and the motions of skilled pitchers (e.g., shoulder positioning at 90 degrees of abduction-adduction during the acceleration phase). Four pitches for subject A (two in pre-training, one during training and one in post-training), and three for subject B (one each in pre-training, training and post-training) were videotaped with the 3D DLT procedure using two high-speed cameras, and then analyzed. We then examined the mechanical differences between pre- and post-training. The speed of the ball at release increased progressively with every successive pitch for both subjects (Subject A : 1st : 130.3km/h ; 2nd : 133.2km/h ; 3rd : 135.7km/h ; 4th : 142.2km/h. Subject B : 1st : 131.0km/h ; 2nd : 135.0km/h ; 3rd : 139.3km/h). The pitching styles of both subjects changed from their original OH style to the TQ style, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The time-dependent patterns and peak values of the angular velocities of shoulder internal-external rotation and elbow flexion-extension of the throwing arm did not change very much. However, the peak value of the angular velocity of shoulder internal rotation occurred immediately after ball release for the OH style, while for the TQ style it occurred at ball release. As a result, the angular velocity of elbow extension at ball release was larger in the OH style than in the TQ style. On the other hand, the angular velocity of shoulder internal rotation at ball release was larger in the TQ style than in the OH style. These findings suggest that the increase in the speed of the ball is dominated by elbow extension in the OH style, and by shoulder internal rotation in the TQ style.
著者
森下 義隆 矢内 利政
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
vol.63, no.1, pp.237-250, 2018-06-10 (Released:2018-06-20)
参考文献数
27

The purpose of this study was to examine within-subject differences in bat-swing trajectory between intentional hitting towards the same field and towards the opposite field. 19 industrial league baseball batters and 16 collegiate baseball batters performed same-field hitting (SH) and opposite-field hitting (OH). The movement of the bat during the swing was recorded with two high-speed cameras (1000 fps) for 3D analysis. At the instant of ball impact, the striking surface of the bat faced towards the same field in SH and towards the opposite field in OH. The bat-head trajectory immediately before impact was directed obliquely upward in SH, whereas it was directed obliquely downward in OH. Throughout the swing, the projection angle of the bat on the vertical plane was greater in OH than in SH, and the ratio of the translational component of the bat-head speed to the resultant bat-head speed was significantly greater in OH than in SH. These results suggest that the characteristics of the bat swing in OH provide a suitable impact condition to drive the ball towards the opposite field, as evidence has demonstrated that (1) a batted ball is likely to travel towards the opposite field when the lower half of the ball is hit by a vertically inclined bat, and (2) the striking surface of the bat is unlikely to turn to face towards the same field when the contribution to the resultant bat-head speed is generated more by the translational component of the bathead speed than by the rotational component.
著者
池本 淳一
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.13107, (Released:2014-10-23)
参考文献数
28

This paper focuses on the position of “Ju-ken” matches and their promoter, Kenji Kano, in Japanese boxing history. A “Ju-ken” match was a match between a judoist and a boxer, and such bouts were held from the middle of the Taisho era to the early Showa era in Kobe, Tokyo and Osaka. The main organizer of these matches was the “International Ju-ken club”, whose owner Kenji Kano was the nephew of Jigoro Kano. This study divides the history of Ju-ken into three periods, each with respective features.   The first period was from October 1919 to April 1920. Ju-ken at this time was intended to reform judo into a competitive sport through fighting with boxing. Although judo had been well established at that time, it was facing a challenge due to loss of its spirit and form as a martial art during the process of sportification. Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, was unhappy with this change. By studying boxing, karate, aikido, stick fighting and other martial arts, he aimed at creating a ‘Martial Art Judo’. His nephew Kenji Kano pursued martial art-oriented judo as well, but his approach to reconstructing judo as a martial art was through mixed martial arts games, the “Ju-Ken math”.   The middle period was from May 1920 to March 1925, when Ju-ken evolved into a spectator sport that encapsulated the struggle for superiority in terms of nationality and ethnicity. Because Kodokan prohibited their members from participating in any mixed-martial arts match from April 1921, Ju-ken became a spectator sport. In addition, after charity matches following the Great Kanto Earthquake, in order to bring more excitement to the game, Ju-ken heightened the opposition and rivalry based on the nationalities and ethnicities of the athletes.   The final period was from May 1925 to August 1931, when Ju-ken changed into a show that was intended to provoke nationalistic emotions among the audience. After the development of “normal” boxing, Ju-ken held normal boxing matches in their games and adopted new boxing-like rules. These new rules and the point systems put foreign boxers at a disadvantage when fighting against Japanese judoists, ensuring that Japanese would always defeat foreigners.   Finally, through assimilation of knowledge and focusing on boxing, this study argues that Ju-ken matches created a background for localization of modern boxing in Japan.
著者
五賀 友継 李 燦雨
出版者
一般社団法人 日本体育学会
雑誌
体育学研究 (ISSN:04846710)
巻号頁・発行日
pp.17005, (Released:2018-01-19)
参考文献数
93

The aim of this study was to clarify the establishment and development process of Dai Nippon Kyudo Kai (DNKK), which existed from the Meiji to the pre-war Showa era, and its organizational forms. The tasks of the study were to elucidate the establishment and developmental process of the DNKK based on the historical characteristics of the organization, which can be divided into 6 periods. The organizational forms were examined based on the articles of incorporation, and the trends of membership and branch distribution were also clarified. The results were as follows: 1)The DNKK was established as Seinen Kyujutsu Kai under the Toshizane Honda school in 1909, and shortly renamed the Dai Nippon Kyujutsu Kai. When it became an incorporated foundation in 1919, it was renamed the DNKK. The kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected at the time of its foundation. 2)The DNKK increased its membership by developing its publishing arm, and promoted kyujutsu and kyudo as part of the regular curriculum in the school. 3)Division among DNKK members in 1915 and the death of Toshizane Honda in 1917 led to a schism of Toshizane Hondaʼs pupils, which resulted in diffusion of the Toshizane Honda method among kyudo players. 4)The DNKK was renamed kyudo from kyujutsu when it became an incorporated foundation in 1919. They considered kyujutsu to be a subject within kyudo. 5) The massive promotion of the DNKK was financially supported by kyudo shops. 6)Analysis of the articles of incorporation showed that the kyudo philosophy of Kako Neya was strongly reflected in the policy of the DNKK through a mechanism based on the opinions of the board of councilors. 7) The conflict with Dai Nippon Butoku Kai over kyudoyosoku resulted in further expansion of the DNKK because of the massive promotion program against them, and a medically negative interpretation to kyudoyosoku evident at the Tokyo Provisional First Army Hospital. 8)Kako Neya decided to step down in 1943, and the activity of the DNKK was substantially terminated in 1944 due to the influence of war. 9)The cumulative total DNKK membership was 22,769 between June 1912 and October 1943. The membership trend was affected by various external factors. 10)A total of 426 branches were established domestically and internationally. The trend of branch establishment was similar to that of membership, and 75% of branches were located in Eastern Japan. The DNKK aggressively promoted overseas expansion.